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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Efficient cooling concepts for high heat flux components in fusion reactor

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
2.03.00  Engineering sciences and technologies  Energy engineering   

Code Science Field
T140  Technological sciences  Energy research 

Code Science Field
2.03  Engineering and Technology  Mechanical engineering 
Keywords
fusion reactor, efficient cooling concepts, heat transfer models, turbulence modelling
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (7)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  33647  Sandi Cimerman    Technical associate  2018 - 2021 
2.  07025  PhD Leon Cizelj  Energy engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  963 
3.  33540  PhD Martin Draksler  Energy engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  107 
4.  16435  PhD Boštjan Končar  Energy engineering  Head  2018 - 2021  367 
5.  39407  PhD Rok Krpan  Mechanics  Junior researcher  2018 - 2021  45 
6.  35549  PhD Matej Tekavčič  Process engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  93 
7.  12057  PhD Iztok Tiselj  Energy engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  467 
Organisations (1)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0106  Jožef Stefan Institute  Ljubljana  5051606000  90,600 
Abstract
Development of the divertor targets is one of the most challenging tasks in the designing of ITER and future power plants, including DEMO. The divertor target must be designed to withstand the high heat loads at the strike point of more than 10 MW/m2. Since the overall power plant efficiency depends on the divertor operation, sufficient, but effective cooling of the divertor is required to avoid damage of components. The helium-cooled divertor is in long-term envisaged as one of the most promising concepts for the DEMO fusion power plant. Apart from high outlet temperature that allows an efficient conversion of divertor power into electricity, the helium is preferred due to its chemical compatibility with fusion materials and the possibility to accommodate the coolant temperatures to the various operational windows of the plasma facing and heat sink materials. The main objective of the proposed project is the development of an efficient divertor cooling solution for the helium-cooled target. Sufficiently accurate fast predictive numerical methods are needed for pre-conceptual and optimization studies of different cooling concepts. Based on the results of numerical simulations, the model of the cooling element for the most promising solution needs to be constructed and validated in the experiment that corresponds to the DEMO heat load conditions. Besides the design conditions at normal operation, the thermal loading of the divertor during the loss of coolant event needs to be evaluated. The research proposal follows three main objectives that will be addressed in three Work Packages: The main objective of the first work package is to develop an effective URANS-based turbulence model for simulation multiple impinging jets. The URANS simulations will be validated against the available time-averaged LES benchmark results, by comparing the velocity fields, turbulence and heat transfer characteristics. An improved fast predictive turbulence model, with the uncertainty of heat transfer prediction below 10% is expected to be the main result of this work package. The goal of the second work package is an improved helium-cooling solution for the DEMO divertor target. The advanced turbulent model developed in WP1 will be used to perform numerical analyses of several cooling concept variants. The proposed design of the cooling element should withstand the DEMO heat load conditions of 10 MW/m2 and must be easy to manufacture and integrate into the divertor target. The design temperature window of the heat sink material has to be compatible with the lower helium temperature between 400 oC and 500 oC. In collaboration with KIT, the manufacturing of test model of the cooling element and its experimental verification is planned. The objective of the third workpackage is to predict overheating of the DEMO divertor structural materials during the total loss of cooling. The analysed example considers the heat loading on the single divertor cassette, immediately after the reactor shutdown, which has lost the active cooling function. Such condition will occur also during the regular replacement of the divertor cassette that is being unplugged from the cooling system. The divertor cassette is heated up due to the decay heat in the structure materials. Thermal radiation from the actively cooled surfaces of the surrounding components represents the only cooling mode of the detached cassette. The use of accurate thermal radiation methods is therefore necessary. The main goal is to accurately predict the temperature rise in the divertor cassette.
Significance for science
The development of the divertor concept is one of the main challenges on the way towards the fusion power plant, where high collaborative research is needed. The European joint program EUROfusion provides firm basis for coordinated collaborative research that needs to be complemented by national research activity. The results of this project will directly impact the divertor development for DEMO fusion reactor. Hence, the project is fully in-line with the EUROfusion program and is expected to complement and strengthen our participation in international fusion projects. The project results are expected to have much broader impact contributing to the scientific fields of turbulence and heat transfer modelling and to the computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results of divertor optimisation studies will further contribute to the development of efficient cooling of components subjected to a high surface heat loads. Last but not least, the project results will increase the reputation of Slovenian researchers within the international scientific community.
Significance for the country
The development of the divertor concept is one of the main challenges on the way towards the fusion power plant, where high collaborative research is needed. The European joint program EUROfusion provides firm basis for coordinated collaborative research that needs to be complemented by national research activity. The results of this project will directly impact the divertor development for DEMO fusion reactor. Hence, the project is fully in-line with the EUROfusion program and is expected to complement and strengthen our participation in international fusion projects. The project results are expected to have much broader impact contributing to the scientific fields of turbulence and heat transfer modelling and to the computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results of divertor optimisation studies will further contribute to the development of efficient cooling of components subjected to a high surface heat loads. Last but not least, the project results will increase the reputation of Slovenian researchers within the international scientific community.
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