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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Development of High Granularity Timing Detector for ATLAS experiment

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
1.02.06  Natural sciences and mathematics  Physics  Experimental physics of elementary particles 

Code Science Field
P210  Natural sciences and mathematics  Elementary particle physics, quantum field theory 

Code Science Field
1.03  Natural Sciences  Physical sciences 
Keywords
Low Gain Avalanche Detectors, ATLAS, time measurments, radiation damage
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (8)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  09081  PhD Vladimir Cindro  Physics  Researcher  2019 - 2022  1,569 
2.  38197  PhD Bojan Hiti  Physics  Researcher  2019 - 2022  525 
3.  18278  PhD Borut Paul Kerševan  Physics  Researcher  2019 - 2022  1,327 
4.  15642  PhD Gregor Kramberger  Physics  Head  2019 - 2022  1,470 
5.  12313  PhD Igor Mandić  Physics  Researcher  2019 - 2022  1,464 
6.  04763  PhD Marko Mikuž  Physics  Researcher  2019 - 2022  1,615 
7.  21552  PhD Andrej Studen  Physics  Researcher  2021 - 2022  129 
8.  11985  PhD Marko Zavrtanik  Physics  Researcher  2019 - 2022  1,024 
Organisations (2)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0106  Jožef Stefan Institute  Ljubljana  5051606000  90,038 
2.  1554  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics  Ljubljana  1627007  33,822 
Abstract
The proposed project aims at developing and qualifying detectors/sensors which will be used in the High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) of ATLAS experiment after the Large Hadron Collider upgrade around 2024. The upgrade represents an enormous challenge in terms of coping with large particle fluxes emerging from the collisions. On average 200 p-p collisions occur every 25 ns. A resulting track and jet densities complicate the analysis of the underlying physics reactions that took place. Association of detector hits to tracks and jets from different collisions is a demanding process requiring huge CPU power on one side and creation of large combinatorial background (uncertainty) on the other. A way to solve that problem is separation of individual collisions also in terms of time of occurrence within each bunch crossing. With a full space-time point associated to each detector hit a far more efficient tracking can be achieved. Moreover, a much more precise analysis of the energy flow is possible for products of collisions that occur close in space with known timing. Precise timing detector with large enough granularity would also allow identification of the jet origin process (underlying physics) from the topology of the particle time and space distribution within the jets. As a part of the ATLAS experiment upgrade a construction of the so called High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is envisaged. HGTD will be placed between the Inner Tracker (ITk) and Liquid Ar calorimeter (LAr). It would extend from pseudo-rapidity=2.3 to 4.2 (12-65 cm) at z=350 cm from the interaction point. The required time resolution of the tracks in HGTD is ~30-40 ps and it is foreseen that it will serve also as luminosity meter and beam condition monitor. That requires reading of the detector hits with 40 MHz. The most promising choice of detector technology for HGTD is Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD). These detectors differ from standard silicon n+-p detectors by an extra p+ layer between n++ implant and p bulk, which causes high enough electric field for impact ionization. The principle of operation is similar to Avalanche Photo Diodes with several differences. The LGADs detectors can be segmented into macro-pixels (~1 mm2) or strips therefore a special implant design around electrode edges is required to prevent device breakdown. In order to achieve the desired time resolution of HGTD both time walk and noise jitter have to be reduced. It was shown by simulations and also in test beam measurements that for 45 mm thick LGADs of pad size around 1 mm2 with gain of ~60, time resolution of 26 ps can be achieved for a single layer and 15 ps for three layers combined. One of the largest obstacles for their applications is relatively fast decrease of gain with irradiation, which is attributed to the decrease of initial dopant concentration in multiplication layer. The proposed project aims to take part in design, production and testing of LGAD detectors that would eventually lead to construction of HGTD. The project is split into several work packages: design and production of several iterations of sensor prototypes (including a possible fallback solution of small cell 3D silicon detector in the innermost part of HGTD with largest radiation damage effects), setting up the system for precise time measurements for minimum ionizing particles, irradiation campaigns, characterization of irradiated sensors properties, simulations of sensor operation and plans for running scenarios of HGTD using LGADs. Finally the project will aim to find way to mitigate radiation damage through the use of different dopants, defect engineering and running conditions.
Significance for science
Results of the research will significantly contribute to construction of HGTD in ATLAS experiment.  HGTD will improve the performance of ATLAS detector in many ways, from improving the background rejection to increasing the discovery potential by opening new ways to analyse data, hence leading to possible new discoveries in particle physics. Successful operation of segmented semiconductor detectors with precise timing information (4D particle tracking) will allow also planning of future experiments in particle physics (e.g. Future Circular Collider) with much larger scientific discovery potential. Although ATLAS HGTD requires relatively large macro pixels (1 mm2) also more finely segmented sensors (pixel and strip as LGAD or inverse-LGAD) will greatly benefit from its development. Apart from high energy physics position and timing sensitive particle detectors have large potential in other applications, most notably in medicine. The ability to use LGADs in precise Time-Of-Flight measurements allows proton-CT scanners to determine accurately the energy of the scattered protons, hence the usage of bulky and complicated calorimeters can be avoided. Recently produced LGADs from FBK have shown very high gains of several hundred. Such gains in combination with excellent position resolution ((1 mm) would allow construction of Time-of-Fligth PET-Scanners where the good  position resolution of LGADs can be exploited for direct detection of conversion electrons, therefore serving as a “magnifying glass” to enhance the image resolution. There are several other applications which would all benefit from LGADs such as precise Range-Gated-Cameras where excellent timing combined with high signals is crucial or high frequency counters for hadron therapies. The importance of LGAD technology in various fields of research was recognized also by ERC by awarding the project Ultra-Fast Timing Detectors (ERC-2014-ADG) a research grant.
Significance for the country
Results of the research will significantly contribute to construction of HGTD in ATLAS experiment.  HGTD will improve the performance of ATLAS detector in many ways, from improving the background rejection to increasing the discovery potential by opening new ways to analyse data, hence leading to possible new discoveries in particle physics. Successful operation of segmented semiconductor detectors with precise timing information (4D particle tracking) will allow also planning of future experiments in particle physics (e.g. Future Circular Collider) with much larger scientific discovery potential. Although ATLAS HGTD requires relatively large macro pixels (1 mm2) also more finely segmented sensors (pixel and strip as LGAD or inverse-LGAD) will greatly benefit from its development. Apart from high energy physics position and timing sensitive particle detectors have large potential in other applications, most notably in medicine. The ability to use LGADs in precise Time-Of-Flight measurements allows proton-CT scanners to determine accurately the energy of the scattered protons, hence the usage of bulky and complicated calorimeters can be avoided. Recently produced LGADs from FBK have shown very high gains of several hundred. Such gains in combination with excellent position resolution ((1 mm) would allow construction of Time-of-Fligth PET-Scanners where the good  position resolution of LGADs can be exploited for direct detection of conversion electrons, therefore serving as a “magnifying glass” to enhance the image resolution. There are several other applications which would all benefit from LGADs such as precise Range-Gated-Cameras where excellent timing combined with high signals is crucial or high frequency counters for hadron therapies. The importance of LGAD technology in various fields of research was recognized also by ERC by awarding the project Ultra-Fast Timing Detectors (ERC-2014-ADG) a research grant.
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