Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Implementation of additive technologies in prosthodontics

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
2.04.02  Engineering sciences and technologies  Materials science and technology  Metallic materials 

Code Science Field
T450  Technological sciences  Metal technology, metallurgy, metal products 

Code Science Field
2.05  Engineering and Technology  Materials engineering 
dental alloys, 3D print technology, physical, electrochemical properties, alloy/cement interface
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (20)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  16394  PhD Mirjam Bajt Leban  Civil engineering  Researcher  2021 - 2022  293 
2.  31346  MSc Nina Gartner  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2019 - 2020  76 
3.  37501  PhD Miha Hren  Civil engineering  Researcher  2019 - 2020  64 
4.  54141  Peter Jakovac  Stomatology  Researcher  2020 
5.  53789  PhD Matic Jovičević Klug  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2020 - 2021  83 
6.  52612  Domen Kanduti  Stomatology  Researcher  2020  15 
7.  08224  PhD Igor Kopač  Stomatology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  166 
8.  22315  PhD Tadeja Kosec  Chemistry  Head  2019 - 2022  339 
9.  50743  Tomaž Košorok  Stomatology  Researcher  2019 - 2022 
10.  54140  Matej Kurnik  Stomatology  Researcher  2020 - 2022  12 
11.  08281  PhD Andraž Legat  Civil engineering  Researcher  2019 - 2022  489 
12.  50153  Emir Mujanović  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2020 
13.  00965  PhD Maja Ovsenik  Stomatology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  487 
14.  39579  Rok Ovsenik  Stomatology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  22 
15.  55268  Mitja Papler    Technical associate  2022 
16.  15269  PhD Bojan Podgornik  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  1,138 
17.  26237  PhD Marko Sedlaček  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  294 
18.  24284  PhD Franci Vode  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  159 
19.  20335  PhD Bojan Zajec  Civil engineering  Researcher  2019 - 2020  184 
20.  32177  PhD Borut Žužek  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2019 - 2022  468 
Organisations (4)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  1502  Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute  Ljubljana  5866324000  10,214 
2.  0206  Institute of Metals and Technology  Ljubljana  5051622000  6,101 
3.  0381  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine  Ljubljana  1627066  48,701 
4.  1694  Institute of orthodontics and maxilofacial orthopaedics  Ljubljana  5918774  22 
When restoring endodontically treated teeth with the lack of the sufficient coronal dental tissue, the post-cores are used to replace missing coronal tooth structure for support and retention for prosthodontic restoration.  Custom cast metal post and cores have been used for such restoration, or as an alternative prefabricated post with coronal built-ups are being used. With digitalization of dentistry new possibilities of prosthodontic restorations came into consideration. Different computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) methods were introduced and are nowadays used.  Additive manufacturing methods are emerging fast into the clinical dental practice in the last few years. However, there is a great need for detailed understanding of physical properties in relation to technological parameters in one hand and clinical practice on the other hand. The main goal of the project is to (study) compare traditional and modern methods for producing posts and cores with detailed study on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties that influence the clinical experience (preparation, restoration, patient’s response). The second goal is to tailor suitable 3D printed post and core/cement interface for the best possible clinical practice. The investigated properties of the studied post and-core objects will be mechanical, physical, chemical, corrosion and metallographic. The mechanical properties that are aimed to study are: tensile strength, residual stresses and fatigue performance. Metallographic investigation will include the study of the size and distribution of microstructural grains within dental material and at the surface, the interface surface/cement. A line and mapping EDS, including EBSD and TEM, analysis over cross-section will be conducted in order to define intermetallic phases. X-Ray computed microtomography will be also used in the study to investigate the 3-dimensional structure of studied materials. By means of this method, the voids, imperfections and other characteristics will be observed on micro-meter level. Hardness will be studied in relation to microstructural properties. Electrochemical tests on the dental materials will be included in the study to get information on the corrosion properties when exposed to corrosive saliva. The susceptibility to local type of corrosion will be evaluated. Moreover, spectroscopic studies will be used in the study, such as X-Ray photo electron spectroscopy, Raman and XRD spectroscopy, in order to understand the structure of the passive layers, to define the possible increase of the corrosion sensitivity and to define the properties of the surface of the dental materials. The project will contribute to the improvement of the knowledge on dental materials in the field modern additive manufacturing field. This knowledge on current material properties is of a high importance, not only for the enhanced treatment of the patient but also for general improvements in the dental practice, as well as industry.
Significance for science
The proposed project meets objectives assessed by The National Research Development and Research Fields, which are that it connects the field of advanced materials and technologies with the field of technological development for sustainable economy.   Newly developing technologies in the field of additive manufacturing provide a high impact to sustainable economy. In current moment 3D printing technologies are fast evolving tecjnology in the field of polymers and composite materials, which steer the fast development also in the field of metals.   At the moment the focus is in developing technologies while extensive research of the material properties of produced metals and 3D metal parts is still lacking. By combining technological development on one side and characterization of such developed metals and 3D parts, as proposed in this project, a great step is made in mastering technology development and understanding material characteristic.   It is of a big importance to study the impacts of the technological parameters to the properties of the 3D printed materials including mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics. By knowing the characteristics and material properties as proposed in this research project, a great forward progress is expected to be done in this fast developing technology.   It is of great importance to set the limiting operation conditions and parameters to ensure the longer lifespan of such metals and parts, used in a wide range of applications. Sudden failure of technological, medical and electronic-electric systems can result in vast damages leading to catastrophes, which is usually a consequence of a lack of time for thorough research of the properties of the used materials since only urgent demands and requirements are fulfilled.   3D metal printing technologies offer many potential applications and it is thereby important that technological improvements and materials' characterization are working hand in hand. It is expected that our results published in journals of high scientific impact will have high scientific additive value in the field of materials and additive technologies. Collaborating with scientists and experts from the field at other research, technology and industrial institutes, we will assure the results to be applied in practice. The rationale is to start to resolve problems of high industry impact.
Significance for the country
Successful companies are aware of the importance of choosing good quality materials and reliable technologies in order to produce best quality products. In additive technology based manufacturing one of the basic criteria is the assurance for sustainable durability of materials at the chosen environment (combination of mechanical, physical and chemical properties).   3D printing technology in the field of dental application has many potential applications in micro joining and building of 2D and 3D functional parts. In this fast evolving technological development it is very important to rely on the material properties to avoid different failures, which have an impact on product quality and related economic and social benefits. Thus, the additive technology of dental materials represents an important technological and scientific field, mainly due to fast evolving requirements on complex parts and increased number of new materials (special alloys and coatings, new co-junction systems and higher functional demands). In all this, it should not be forgotten that in 3D printed dental materials, it is especially important to ensure the high quality of mattresses due to direct influence on the health and quality of life of people who have pre-treatment. Unfortunately, in fast-developing technologies, knowledge about the properties lags behind the development and use of technologies. In this project, we want to deepen our knowledge of the properties of 3D printed dental materials in dental technics.   The proposed project is focused on the research study and further application of 3D printing technologies in different fields biomedicine. For the purpose of the further application there are high demands on defining technological parameters for final product. Characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of deposited droplets, layers and 3D structures will be performed. The aims are to define the limiting operating properties for direct in prosthodontics and other dental applications. There is a great interest for the implementation of the research results in dental applications in Slovenia and worldwide. Our research group consists of leading experts in the field offering knowledge for fast development (Department of Prostodontics, Medical Faculty of University of Ljubljana, Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute – Laboratory for metals, corrosion and anticorrosion protection, and Institute for metals and technologies). We will also collaborate with different research group at the Faculty for mechanical engineering at University of Ljubljana – Laboratory for Synergetics.
Most important scientific results Interim report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Interim report
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