The members of the project team colaborated intensively with veterinarians and breeders who faced problems in the treatment of animals with resistant bacteria. Most of the problems had veterinarians with the treatment of diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli with ESBL therefore we have prepared various lectures and workshops on this subject. The paper presents the problems of E. coli infection in veal breeding. It can cause a severe form of diarrhea, which often ends with an animal's death. Particularly problematic are infections with isolates that are resistant to several groups of antibiotics (especially E. coli ESBL), which make it more difficult to treat. The development of resistant bacteria may be due to the ingestion of milk containing subinhibitant amounts of antibiotics during the first days of life. The most common causes are the residues of antibiotics in the colostrum due to drying of cows or ingestion of mother's milk after the treatment of udder infection. In cases of E. coli infection with the ESBL, effective supportive care is needed first.
F.04 Increase of the technological levelCOBISS.SI-ID: 4303738
We studied the human infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in possible association with livestock. At different parts of Slovenia, especially in the northeast, samples were taken from 16 farms, where at least one of the household members was recently colonized or hospitalized due to infection with LA-MRSA. In MRSA positive index patient with a positive screening pattern for LA-MRSA and ST398 an epidemiological investigation with questionnaires was started. After the epidemiological inquiry the samples of all members of the household and all animals on the farm were collected. The surveillance swabs (throat, nose, skin) were obtained from all available household members, nose swabs from farm animals and dust samples from the farm environment. The antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by a microdilution method. All isolates were also tested on the basis of staphylococcal protein A (spa typing). All human MRSA isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, penicillin and tetracycline, and some also to ciprofloxacin and clindamycin. Different resistant patterns were observed in animals, in addition to cefoxitine, penicillin and tetracycline, the animals isolates were also resistant to some other antimicrobials, but no resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed. Human MRSA isolates were associated with 4 different spa types, of which t011 and t034 were most common, additionally and t1451, t10765 and t1344 were also detected. The presence of LA-MRSA in animals was confirmed in pigs on five farms, where all the isolates were associated with spa type t011. We assumed that pigs were probably source of human infection, but we could also conclude that LA-MRSA strains were already spreading within the human population. LA-MRSA was isolated from humans on the farms, where both animal samples and grain dust samples were negative.
B.06 OtherCOBISS.SI-ID: 4387450
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of livestock on human infections with LA-MRSA and to find the epidemiological relation between human and animal hosts by comparison the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of humans and animals MRSA strains. Livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) is often present in domestic animals, especially in pigs, therefore could serve as potential source for human infections. LA-MRSA are mainly associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398, which emerged as public health concern in 2005 after reports of a specific multilocus sequence type found in swine workers in Europe. In three case of detection of LA-MRSA infection (with characteristic spa type for animals) in human, the epidemiological inquiry were carried out to find the potential source of colonisation or infection. Additionally, samples from the patients' family members and animals on their farm were sampled. For the examination we choosed the patients with detected LA-MRSA with characteristic spa type for animals. They have been questioned about possible contacts with livestock (living on the farm) and asked for permission to sample their livestock and other animal species living in the household. We sampled the nasal swabs of animals and environment samples (dust) on farms. Potential spreads were ascertained with typing methods and comparative genomics. This case shows a close cooperation of human and veterinary microbiologists and gave us an insight in the role of animals for human infections with MRSA. In Slovenia, the most of the LA-MRSA were isolated from patients from the most important agricultural regions with intensive livestock breeding.
D.08 Management and development of research activitiesCOBISS.SI-ID: 4335738
In Slovenia, the strategy is developed by the National Commission for the prudent use of antimicrobials, composed by experts from the medical, veterinary and environmental professions. Some members of the project team have been intensively involved for many years. The main objective of the National Strategy is to identify the causes of antibiotic resistance and to implement specific measures to prevent the development of resistant bacteria. Microbiological monitoring of the resistance of bacteria in human and veterinary medicine and the environment is the basis for the assessment of the situation in Slovenia. We need a stable resistance monitoring system that will provide reliable and comparable data. In the field of medical and veterinary microbiology, competent microbiological laboratories connected to the network are needed, together with the national coordination center and reference laboratories. Detection of antibiotic resistance requires the adoption of the One Health approach, which takes into account that human health is linked to animal health and the environment. Resistance to antibiotics is a global health issue that requires international attention and cooperation.
F.30 Professional assessment of the situationCOBISS.SI-ID: 4726394
The members of the project group (Matjaž Ocepek, Darja Kušar) were members of the organizing committee of the 7th Congress of the Slovenian Microbiological Society, Bled 2017, Andrej Kirbiš is the president of the org. Matjaž Ocepek and Urška Jamnikar Ciglenečki are members of the program committee of the 7th Veterinary congress, Matjaž Ocepek was a member of the organizing committee of the 8th Global Summit on Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, February 2018 Paris, France. Irena Zdovc and Urška Jamnikar Ciglenečki were three times (Ljubljana, 2016, 2017 and 2018) members of the organizing committee of One Health, organized jointly by the Veterinary Faculty and the National Institute of Public Health (NIJZ).
B.01 Organiser of a scientific meeting