The object of the patent is a biochar and heat production device from biomass and a method in this regard, or more specifically, a device and method for performing slow pyrolysis of dry biomass in a reduction atmosphere for the production of biochar and heat.
F.33 Slovenian patentCOBISS.SI-ID: 26239544
Municipal Sewage Sludge (MSS) represent the last part or remain at efforts in the collection and purifying municipal wastewaters; it remains as the unresolved problem of its integration into the circular economy. Attention is given to relevant and current technologies, their combinations, optimization and links to an appropriate business model in order to achieve economy of the investment and its meaningful sustainable operation. By analysis of CAPEX and OPEX and its combination as the total cost of processing MSS some possibilities of techno-economic analysis for determining the influential factors of the investment was presented. Optimizing key investment factors and integrating into a business model, it is possible to achieve the optimum of the investment results in the ROI period and ensure sustainable and meaningful operation of the technology. MSS drying technologies, like a belt and solar dryers and their connection with the pyrolysis have been considered.
F.10 Improvements to an existing technological process or technologyCOBISS.SI-ID: 26099256
Nearly 60 % of Slovenia is covered with forests. It is one of the most forest-covered countries in the world. It ranks the 4th among European countries and among the top 30 countries in the world. In the last 15 years, we have, on average, cut down around 3 million m3 of trees per year due to regular (2/3) and sanitary (1/3) woodcutting. In 2014, glaze ice damaged more than half of Slovenian forests. Due to the consequent bark beetles infestation, Slovenia has since 2014 felled 4 million m3 of trees annually for sanitary reasons. Slovenia has thus gathered huge quantities of second-grade and waste wood that has low prices ($30 – $60 per m3). Consequently, it has an opportunity to make the production of wood-based biochar viable. Research group worked on thermoanalytical experiments with beech, spruce and oak tree woods, which represent the majority of Slovenian forests; 32 %, 31 % and 7 % respectively. The influence of pyrolysis conditions, such as heating rate, temperature of pyrolysis, time, atmosphere on the yield of biochar, its surface characteristics, carbon and volatile organic matter content of biochar, was studied. The optimal pyrolysis conditions for different feedstock have been determined. The research is focused on the impact of pyrolysis conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cation-exchange capacity (CEC), as well as on the scale-up to 2 L and 2 m3 batch reactor, which will produce enough biochar for agricultural experiments.
F.02 Acquisition of new scientific knowledgeCOBISS.SI-ID: 1537903811
The pelletized digestate of the municipal wastewater treatment plant is biomass with a high proportion of inorganic substances. The composition of the biomass is suitable for energy and material use; therefore, their most commonly used final recovery processes  are: i) R1 - primarily used as fuel or otherwise for energy generation; and ii) R3 - recycling / obtaining of organic substances that are not used as solvents (including composting and other biological transformation processes, including gasification and pyrolysis). Due to its diverse final processing products, pyrolysis is gaining in importance. In the case of pyrolysis with a temperature load of biomass in the range of 450 oC to 600 oC, the resulting biochar is the largest percentage by weight of final products. It is sensible to use it as a fertilizer because of its nutrients. A pyrolysis of the pelletized digestate of a large treatment plant was performed with a semi-pilot device. The resulting final products were valued according to their possible permanent use. The paper shows the quality declaration of the biochar obtained and the assessment of the results according to the requirements of the European guidelines for the quality of biochar that can be used in agriculture. The basic characterization according to the above guidelines is that the obtained biochar is a stabilized solid product of pyrolysis due to the low molar ratio H/Corg, but due to the lower TOC content, it is only pyrogen carbonized material (PMC).
F.02 Acquisition of new scientific knowledgeCOBISS.SI-ID: 1537932483
An aspect of the use of pelletized digestate (hereinafter referred to as pellets) of the municipal wastewater treatment plant (KČN), which is non-hazardous waste with the classification number 19 08 05, is presented. From the results of the research we concluded that the properties of pellets during the calendar year do not change significantly and that the pellets their properties are suitable for energy use or for mono-incineration. Since the integrated approach to waste treatment is the basic guide for waste management, it is also necessary to treat ashes that are generated by the incineration of pellets and place it in the material use procedures in terms of the zero waste principle and the circular economy. The properties of the ash granules depend on the temperature of the spirits, so the ash is to be precisely characterized, since the knowledge of its inherent morphological and physico-chemical characteristics is crucial for determining its further use.
F.02 Acquisition of new scientific knowledgeCOBISS.SI-ID: 1537932995