The aim of the study is to obtain an overview of the pyrolysis process in a pyrolysis reactor with a reduction atmosphere and direct combustion of the gas phase and, consequently, direct heat transfer to fresh biomass. The reaction conditions in a reduction atmosphere reactor with direct heat transfer (RA-DP) are significantly different from those in ideal reactors (TG and DTA) than in other indirect reactors. An important difference arises in the first part of the process of heat transfer to fresh biomass - heating of fresh biomass. In the second part, when the parts of the mass reach the pyrolysis temperature, the process itself takes place gradually, depending on the size of the particles, towards their middle. In the third and last part of charring it is necessary to ensure the complete conversion of wood chips into char. It is also important to ensure that the tar residue, measured as PAHs, does not exceed the permitted limit. This exclusion criterion for biochar (BO) is achieved by a sufficiently long retention time at the pyrolysis temperature (annealing). All the mentioned times are connected to the chain of retention times of the input raw material in the reactor. Such time also represents the basis for planning and checking the reactor volume according to the required capacity of the device. Since drying is also included in the pyrolysis supply chain, this is also the subject of analysis in this study. The key and final result of the study is the required retention times of the process devices in the supply / transport chain of the pyrolysis device and especially in its reactor. The time data also represents the basic data for the increase in the calculation of the required capacity of the device.
F.09 Development of a new technological process or technologyCOBISS.SI-ID: 26711352
As part of R&D, we are developing a pyrolysis furnace with a capacity of 20 kg/h of input raw material - wood chips. In the further development of the furnance, we need a drying chamber for drying 20 kg/h of wood chips. An additional chip drying device is required as part of the pyrolysis device because the dryness of the input material affects the process. In order to ensure always the same conditions, regardless of the humidity of the input wood chips, their drying is necessary. To combine all the above requirements, we used the idea of ??an extensive standstill dryer, where virtually any biomass can be dried to the desired final equilibrium humidity. The dryer must operate at a low drying temperature in order to be able to use low-level heat, which cannot otherwise be sold to end users as a final product. The device must also be able to be upgraded in terms of upgrading additional transport and a large storage silo to which fresh wood chips would be supplied, stored and then dosed into the dryer either manually with a bucket or automatically with a movable bottom and auger or conveyor belt. In the present study, the idea of ??an extensive dryer needs to be elaborated to the level of planning and inclusion in the pyrolysis process. It is necessary to ensure a correspondingly low investment value of the device and low enough operating costs so that they will not significantly affect the final price of the entire pyrolysis device and its operating characteristics.
F.09 Development of a new technological process or technologyCOBISS.SI-ID: 26708024
The DIIP study addresses the key issues of the impact of implementation on solving the problem of removal of excess sewage sludge from WWTP (MSS). As is well known, the problem of sustainable and cost-effective removal of MSS is becoming very large. As part of the research work, we identified the possibilities of using biochar for efficient drying of MSS, which contains up to 80% water. Research has also shown the possibility of using pyrolysis for the thermal use of dry MSS and the production of own char, which can be used for efficient drying. Subsequently, we developed and tested on a pilot level a technology for the efficient processing of MSS into residual ash, from which it will be possible to extract phosphorus-P as a critical raw material in the future. Already in the process of drying and pyrolysis, the amount of residue is reduced by at least 80%. To demonstrate the effectiveness and eligibility of the new technology, we developed a DIIP for the gradual construction of the first demonstration plant through the construction of a partial pilot plant (Phase I) to an industrially operating full capacity plant (Phase II). Based on the findings from the research of the possibilities of MSS processing and research of the product - process - equipment, it was possible to build a pilot test device and gain sufficient knowledge for the production of DIIP. The development of DIIPs for new technological solutions and their transfer to industrial practice is not possible without research findings, as information and data on balance sheets and technological solutions are not available.
F.09 Development of a new technological process or technologyCOBISS.SI-ID: 16104195
The main objective of the Guidance Tool is to diffuse knowledge and replicate the project results achieved in participating EU countries and regions (Slovenia, Check Republic, Italy, Spain, Cyprus). It provides a compilation of experiences at different levels (European, national and regional) of the regulatory improvements, incentives or other simplification measures for EMAS-registered organizations to support and facilitate the implementation of this kind of measures by the Member States in EU: - European level: focused on the future simplifications provided at European level to guide studies of national institutions on possible future amendments on environmental regulations; - National/regional level: devoted to the possible ways to develop regulatory measures and framework laws in the context of better regulation and regulatory relief at national and/or regional level; This Guidance represents a methodological tool for the operational implementation of the priorities adopted by the EU Programs and it can be considered a technical reference for drafting a “Green Book” about better environmental regulation aiming at modifying the legislative EU references.
F.23 Development of new system-wide, normative and programme solutions, and methodsCOBISS.SI-ID: 26712376
Basics of efficient CAPEX and OPEX of the investment to sugar beet refinery restore – project are not standalone items but are influenced by the resource quality, capacity and stability firstly, secondly of sugar production capacity and technology and thirdly on market demand and circumstances. Sugar beet production capacity, quality and stability play a significant rule while their cost represents a major cost in the OPEX of sugar beet refinery. Capacity factor is covered by enough available land for sugar beet growth (and good position in crop rotation system) and with modern Agricultural measures applied to assure beet yield and sucrose content. Based on pilot beet production in the last two years, a yield of the 70 t/ha of sugar beet per hectare and sucrose content between 16 and 17 % can be assured. Such data supported by the implementation of wast new agricultural measures like best seed selection, good position in a crop rotation system, irrigation system, no-tillage development, biochar implementation and ecologically sustainable crop protection chemicals assure stability of sugar beet production for an extended period. Basically, the investment presents a typical example of environmentally oriented socially (economic) based infrastructure production. It provides added value to agriculture by an extended crop rotation system.
F.09 Development of a new technological process or technologyCOBISS.SI-ID: 16252675