Interest in food safety not under any significant influence of formal education. Lack of knowledge in the food and non-food groups regarding the same issues. Perceived risk severity and vulnerability on higher levels among non-food group. Food-processing sub-group differs if compared to the catering sub-group. Potential improvements to formal education and training are suggested.
Charging of material surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions is one of the most important processes in the interactions between biomaterials and surrounding tissue. Other than a biomaterial, titania nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) represent a versatile material for numerous applications such as heavy metal adsorption or photocatalysis. In this article, the surface charge properties of titania NTs in NaNO3 solution were investigated through electrophoretic mobility and polyelectrolyte colloid titration measuring techniques. In addition, we used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging to determine the morphology of TiO2 NTs. A theoretical model based on the classical density functional theory coupled with the charge regulation method in terms of mass action law was developed to understand the experimental data and to provide insights into charge properties at different physical conditions, namely, pH and NaNO3 concentration. Two intrinsic protonation constants and surface site density have been obtained. The electrostatic properties of the system in terms of electrostatic potentials and ion distributions were calculated and discussed for various pH values. The model can quantitatively describe the titration curve as a function of pH for higher bulk salt concentrations and the difference in the equilibrium amount of charges between the inner and outer surfaces of TiO2 NTs. Calculated counterion (NO3-) distributions show a pronounced decrease of NO3- ions for high bulk pH (both inside and outside TiO2 NT) because of the strong electric field. With the decrease of bulk pH or the increase of the salt concentration, NO3- is able to accumulate near the TiO2 NTs surfaces.
It will be demonstrated that the circadian clock can also be used to regulate circannual or even longer time periods. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels, being regulated by the circadian clock, might be the missing link between aging, cell cycle control, DNA damage repair, cellular metabolism and the aging clock, which is responsible for the biological age of an organism. The hypothesis that NAMPT/NAD+/SIRT1 might represent the time regulator that determines the organismal biological age will be presented. The biological age of tissues and organs might be regulated and synchronized through eNAMPT blood secretion. The “NAD World 2.0” concept will be upgraded with detailed insights into mechanisms that regulate NAD+-mediated aging clock ticking, the duration and amplitude of which are responsible for the aging rate of humans.
Our scientific interests involve de novo sequencing of non-tryptic natural amphibian skin peptides including those with intramolecular S–S bond by means of exclusively mass spectrometry. Reliable discrimination of the isomeric leucine/isoleucine residues during peptide sequencing by means of mass spectrometry represents a bottleneck in the workflow for complete automation of the primary structure elucidation of these compounds. MS3 is capable of solving the problem. Earlier we demonstrated the advanced efficiency of ETD-HCD method to discriminate Leu/Ile in individual peptides by consecutive application of ETD to the polyprotonated peptides followed by HCD applied to the manually selected primary z-ions with the targeted isomeric residues at their N-termini and registration of the characteristic w-ions. Later this approach was extended to deal with several (4–7) broad band mass ranges, without special isolation of the primary z-ions. The present paper demonstrates an advanced version of this method when EThcD is applied in the whole mass range to a complex mixture of natural non-tryptic peptides without their separation and intermediate isolation of the targeted z-ions. The proposed EThcD method showed over 81% efficiency for the large natural peptides with intact disulfide ring, while the interfering process of radical site migration is suppressed. Due to higher speed and sensitivity, the proposed EThcD approach facilitates the analytical procedure and allows for the automation of the entire experiment and data processing. Moreover, in some cases it gives a chance to establish the nature of the residues in the intact intramolecular disulfide loops.
We used atomic force spectroscope to determine attractive force between surfaces. We changed the surface charge by changing pH in the solution between the surfaces. After addition of spermidine into the solution the force between the surfaces became attractive. We explained this feature by orientational ordering of molecules with spatially distributed charge between the surfaces which lowers free energy of the system.