We present evidences on membranous nanotubular protrusions as a circuit for neutrophil polarity indicating hat cells have distinct molecular mechanisms for polarization that dominate in different microenvironments.
In solvent extraction, the self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules into an organized structure is the phenomenon responsible for the transfer of the metal ion from the aqueous phase to the organic solvent. In our work we model synergistic extraction systems by a colloidal approach that explicitly takes into account the self-assembly resulting from the amphiphilic nature of the extractants.
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) as a by-product of olive oil extraction process has significant polluting properties mainly related to high organic load, increased COD/BOD ratio, high phenolic content and relatively acidic pH. Chemical characterization of OMW polar fraction identified tyrosol as the most abundant phenolic product, followed by catechol. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of OMW matrix and its polar fraction were tested using a battery of bioassays with model organisms: bacteria Vibrio fischeri, algae Chlorella vulgaris, water fleas Daphnia magna, zebrafish Danio rerio embryos, clover Trifolium repens and wheat Triticum aestivum. Raw OMW sample was the most toxic to V. fischeri (EC50?=?0.24% of OMW sample final concentration), followed by D. magna (EC50?=?1.43%), C. vulgaris (EC50?=?5.20%), D. rerio (EC50?=?7.05%), seeds T. repens (EC50?=?8.68%) and T. aestivum (EC50?=?11.58%). Similar toxicity trend was observed during exposure to OMW polar fraction, showing EC50 values 2.75–4.11 times lower comparing to raw OMW. Tested samples induced also sub-acute effects to clover and wheat (decreased roots, sprouts elongation); and to zebrafish embryos (increased mortality, higher abnormality rate, decreased hatching and pigmentation formation rate).
A lab-scale study imitating microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems was conducted to evaluatethe impact of microalgaeChlorella vulgarison the removal ofEscherichia colifrom raw blackwater. Thestudy consisted of three tests, each with a different dilution of blackwater: 10%, 30%, and 50% blackwater.A machine-learning method (Decision Trees induction) was employed to extract functional dependenciesbetween the measured parameters:E. coli,andC. vulgaris concentrations, electric conductivity, pH,chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and orthophosphate. The results showedthat electric conductivity was the most crucial parameter influencingE. coliinhibition. The removal ofE. coliwas achieved at an electric conductivity of%1569mS/cm andC. vulgarisconcentration)1%107cells/mL depending on the pH value. These results indicate a shift inC. vulgarisandE. coliinteraction from mutualistic to competition at a threshold value of electric conductivity 1569mS/cm at alight intensity of 5000 lux in 16/8 h light/dark intervals, constant temperature and regulated pH.
A clear understanding of the origin of cancer is the basis of successful strategies for effective cancer prevention and control. The origin of cancer at the molecular and cellular levels is not well understood. Is the main cause of cancer genetic instability or disturbed energy metabolism? Evidence will be provided that two transitions from uni- to multi cellular life, as well as the decline in NAD + and ATP levels, the root of cancer. Restoration of redox homeostasis and reactivation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are important factors in cancer prevention.