This work reports on the preparation and systematic testing of a novel multi-layered coating, comprised of the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and biopolymer carboxymethyl cellulose. Drug release testing was performed on an Automated Transdermal Diffusion Cells Sampling System in combination with UV-VIS spectroscopy as the released drug concentration determination method. The results showed that most of the drug is released in the first six hours, whereas the overall released amount could be tailored through changes in the multi-layered coating composition. Biocompatibility tests performed on human osteoblast cells, showed cell viability improvement between 7% and 17% compared to the control sample. The expression of proteins playing important roles in extracellular matrix production and functioning was performed in order to obtain additional proof of the prepared materials’ osteointegration boosting capacity. Finally, electrochemical measurements confirmed that the coatings do not influence the corrosion susceptibility of AISI 316LVM stainless steel.
Suicidal behavior is a multifactorial, polygenic state that affects millions worldwide. It is a result of interplay between hereditary and environmental factors, tied together by epigenetics. Despite vast knowledge on suicidality complete mechanism and factors leading to suicide are unknown. However there is an indication between changes in DNA methylation patterns and suicidal behavior. To identify differential methylation we formed a homogenous group of male suicide victims who died by hanging and control group. Altogether our study included 18 subjects in which two brain regions, Brodmann area 9 (9 suicide victims and 9 controls)) and hippocampus (6 suicide victims and 6 controls) were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Our results have shown several differences in methylation level between suicide victims and controls in both brain regions () 25% difference in methylation and q-value ( 0.01), with gene ontology pointing towards cell structural integrity and nervous system regulation. Additional gene expression analysis identified changes in two genes, ZNF714 (p-value = 0.002) and NRIP3 (p-value=0.046). Limitations Major limitation is small sample size. Our analysis was conducted on brain tissue including different cell types so the results are a representation of a methylation pattern for the whole brain tissue sample. We performed a preliminary methylation study with single base pair resolution using NGS on one of the world populations with a very high suicide risk. Obtained results offer novel insights into altered methylation patterns in suicide victims, which could provide a starting point for further studies on clinical samples with highly expressed suicide risk.
The breakpoint cluster region of the MLL gene (MLLbcr) is frequently rearranged in therapy-related and infant acute leukaemia, but the destabilizing mechanism is poorly understood. We recently proposed that DNA replication stress results in MLLbcr cleavage via endonuclease G (EndoG) and represents the common denominator of genotoxic therapy-induced MLL destabilization. Here we performed a siRNA screen for new factors involved in replication stress-induced MLL rearrangements employing an enhanced green fluorescent protein-based reporter system. We identified 10 factors acting in line with EndoG in MLLbcr breakage or further downstream in the repair of the MLLbcr breaks, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), previously proposed to initiate MLLbcr rearrangements in an RNA transcription-dependent mechanism. Further analysis connected AID and EndoG in MLLbcr destabilization via base excision repair (BER) components. We show that replication stress-induced recruitment of EndoG to the MLLbcr and cleavage are AID/BER dependent. Notably, inhibition of the core BER factor Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 protects against MLLbcr cleavage in tumour and human cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, harbouring the cells of origin of leukaemia. We propose that off-target binding of AID to the MLLbcr initiates BER-mediated single-stranded DNA cleavage, which causes derailed EndoG activity ultimately resulting in leukaemogenic MLLbcr rearrangements.
GWAS have identified )200 risk loci for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The majority of disease associations are known to be driven by regulatory variants. To identify the putative causative genes that are perturbed by these variants, we generate a large transcriptome data set (nine disease-relevant cell types) and identify 23,650 cis-eQTL. We show that these are determined by 9720 regulatory modules, of which 3000 operate in multiple tissues and 970 on multiple genes. We identify regulatory modules that drive the disease association for 63 of the 200 risk loci, and show that these are enriched in multigenic modules. Based on these analyses, we resequence 45 of the corresponding 100 candidate genes in 6600 Crohn disease (CD) cases and 5500 controls, and show with burden tests that they include likely causative genes. Our analyses indicate that 10-fold larger sample sizes will be required to demonstrate the causality of individual genes using this approach.
We used a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the implicit quantization of the acidic N-H and O-H bonds to assess the effect of deuteration on the binding of agonists (2-methylhistamine and 4-methylhistamine) and antagonists (cimetidine and famotidine) to the histamine H2 receptor. The results show that deuteration significantly increases the affinity for 4-methylhistamine and reduces it for 2-methylhistamine, while leaving it unchanged for both antagonists, which is found in excellent agreement with experiments. The revealed trends are interpreted in the light of the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration, known as the Ubbelohde effect, which affects ligand interactions with both active sites residues and solvent molecules preceding the binding, thus providing strong evidence for the relevance of hydrogen bonding for this process. In addition, computations further underline an important role of the Tyr250 residue for the binding. The obtained insight is relevant for the therapy in the context of (per)deuterated drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future, while this approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation and its discrimination between agonists and antagonists.