The structural forms of cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-ß-glucopyranoside (Cy3Glc) were investigated in the pH range from 0.4 to 13.5 for cyanidin and 0.4 to 13.2 for Cy3Glc. The 3-glucosidic substitution in cyanidin 3-O-ß-glucopyranoside at pH values lower than 4.0 was manifested in a large hyperchromic effect, while at pH values higher than 4.0 had the opposite effect and resulted in high hypochromic effect. Multivariate data analysis showed that the structural forms of cyanidin and Cy3Glc have numerous bends, which mutually overlap and influence the shape, position, and intensity of their spectrophotometric measurements. For cyanidin seven structural forms were identified, while for Cy3Glc six structural forms were identified, and one was not. To determine the stability of cyanidin and Cy3Glc at different pHs, HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS analysis was performed. The stability was tested in buffers at four pH values between 2 and 9. Degradation products formed from cyanidin and Cy3Glc at different time in the different buffer solutions were tracked and some of them were identified. Cyanidin stability was decreased in the following order pH 7.0, pH 4.0, pH 2.0, pH 9.0. Stability of Cy3Glc was increasing with decreasing the pH. Cy3Glc was the most stable at pH 2.0, and the least stable at pH 9.0.
We have shown that irradiation of cherries with light-emitting diodes in the blue light region increased the anthocyanin content, whereas UV-B light has no statistically significant effect. Increase in anthocyanins was positively correlated to phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and resulted in more intensive color. Regarding beneficial effects, LEDs with lower light intensity might be suitable for broader commercial use, such as installation in refrigerators, not only to illuminate the compartments, but also to potentially maintain or even improve the food quality. Members of the research group participated in additional two research, which results were published in Journal journals, and the results were published in Industrial crops and products (A'') 1. Abiotic factors during a one-year vegetation period affect sage phenolic metabolites, antioxidants and antimicrobials. GENERALIĆ MEKINIĆ, Ivana, LJUBENKOV, Ivica, SMOLE MOŽINA, Sonja, ABRAMOVIČ, Helena, ŠIMAT, Vida, KATALINIĆ, Ana, NOVAK, Tina, SKROZA, Danijela., Industrial crops and products, 2019, vol. 141, p. 1-7, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111741. [COBISS.SI-ID 5094008], kategorija: 1A1 (Z, A'', A', A1/2) 2. GLIVAR, Taja, ERŽEN, Jan Jurij, KREFT, Samo, ZAGOŽEN, Marjeta, ČERENAK, Andreja, ČEH, Barbara, TAVČAR BENKOVIĆ, Eva. Cannabinoid content in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties grown in Slovenia. Industrial crops and products, ISSN 0926-6690, 2020, vol. 145, str. 1-9, tabele. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669019310921, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.112082. [COBISS.SI-ID 4868465], [JCR, SNIP, WoS do 3. 4. 2020: št. citatov (TC): 0, čistih citatov (CI): 0, čistih citatov na avtorja (CIAu): 0, Scopus do 29. 3. 2020: št. citatov (TC): 2, čistih citatov (CI): 2, čistih citatov na avtorja (CIAu): 0.29] kategorija: 1A1 (Z, A'', A', A1/2)
The efficiencies of sinapic acid and its derivatives syringic acid, syringaldehyde, three sinapoyl esters (ethyl, propyl, butyl sinapates), 4-vinylsyringol and sinapine were investigated for prevention of lipid peroxidation in correlation with their interactions with model lipid membrane systems. Significant antioxidant activities of propyl and butyl sinapates were seen by thiobarbituric acid reactive species and in fluorimetric assays. The sinapic acid esters had the highest impact on membrane structural properties, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence polarisation measurements. The greatest protection of phospholipids from peroxidation by these esters correlated well with their polarity and insertion into the lipid bilayer.
The scientific paper was published in a highly reputable journal (I.F. = 3,241; Q1 in the Food Science field according to JCR). The study investigates the encapsulation of folic acid within conventional and emulsion-templated alginate–pectin hydrogels, proliposomes, and a combination thereof. Dispersed folic acid was encapsulated with this relatively straightforward techniques to obtain particles with a good size definition (350 nm to 250 µm) and good pH-responsive properties for targeted delivery. Encapsulated formulations enable long-term storage and increased release upon ingestion. At the low pH that is expected in the stomach, leaching of the dispersed folic acid was prevented. At the pH that is expected in the intestine, where absorption takes place, full release of the folic acid WAS observed. Overall, the optimum for food processing and storage was pH 3.0, where ?70% of 50% to 200% of the recommended daily allowance of folic acid remained in the alginate–pectin beads after 6 months at room temperature in the dark. The thermal properties, e.g. required for maintaining the structures during pasteurization, were enhanced by emulsion-templated alginate–pectin beads and proliposomes.
Neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer’s disease (AD), arkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, and multiple sclerosis are becoming one of the main health concerns due to the increasing aging of the world’s population. These diseases often share the same biological mechanisms, including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and/or protein fibrillation. Recently, there have been many studies published pointing out the possibilities to reduce and postpone the clinical manifestation of these deadly diseases through lifelong consumption of some crucial dietary substances, among which phytochemicals (e.g., polyphenols) and endogenous substances (e.g., acetyl-L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, n-3 poysaturated fatty acids) showed the most promising results. Another important issue that has been pointed out recently is the availability of these substances to the central nervous system, where they have to be present in high enough concentrations in order to exhibit their neuroprotective properties. As so, such the aim of this review is to summarize the recent findings regarding neuroprotective substances, their mechanisms of action, as well as to point out therapeutic considerations, including their bioavailability and safety for humans.