The aim of the chapter was to examine the demographic development of the Slovene municipalities, to make their typology, to prepare a socioeconomic analysis of the defined types as well as to prepare demographic projections for the types for the next 20 years. To define types of municipalities, we considered demographic trends in the past ten years (growth or decline) as well as the size/equipment of municipalities with the services of general interest, that enabled us to define rural and urban municipalities. Socioeconomic analysis for each type was prepared as well as analytical demographic projections based on five-years age groups. The results show on big socioeconomic discrepancies among the types of municipalities, where some of the indicators depend on population trends and some on urban/rural character of the municipalities. The results proved the assumption of some past studies on further depopulation of border and less accessible areas and the concentration of population and jobs in some limited growth areas. As current demographic trends depend mainly on former processes, the ability to change current unfavourable demographic development is limited. Thus, the question is not »how« but »where« future development can still be mitigated.
The paper presents the depopulation in the hinterland of Koper. By analysing statistical data we examined settlements of the City of Koper, divided them into three groups (urban-growing, rural-growing, rural-declining), and performed a questionnaire survey in eleven settlements with the biggest decrease of the population in the last decade. The main reason for depopulation is the lack of jobs, better living conditions in cities, as well as bad infrastructure and insufficient basic services (e.g. shops). Despite this, those who stayed in these villages exposed nature, peace and silence as the main reason to stay. According to the respondents, better infrastructure, services and development of tourism could bring these areas back to life.
In the field of demographic development, Slovenia shares the fate of more developed European countries: the population has reached its zenith and is aging rapidly, its recovery depends on migration, and projections predict a rapid aggravation of the situation with burning consequences in many areas. Demographic analyzes show a continuing concentration of population in the Osrednjeslovenska statistical region and along most of the motorway junction, as well as a decline in the number of inhabitants in individual cities and large border areas. In this way, in spatial and structural terms, the predictions from decades ago are coming true, when the authors began to draw attention to the demographic threat to Slovenia and the expected spatial consequences of demographic changes. Unfortunately, the warnings of the experts have not hit fertile ground and the consequences are increasingly knocking on the door. Having this in mind, the monograph deals with the development of border areas, the aging of urban and rural populations, the effects of demographic change on the economy and employment, tand he supply and provision of services of general interest. We are too late to prevent the negative effects of demographic change, and systematic measures are needed to mitigate them.
After 1950, the municipality of Velenje experienced dramatic demographic changes. This was closely linked to the local development of the economy - mining, energy and industry, and later service activities. Velenje became the center of gravity of the wider area. Three-quarters of the municipality’s population lives in the city. Due to economic growth, the municipality has become an immigration area. Most of the immigrants settled in Velenje. Until 1970, immigrants came from other parts of Slovenia. Immigration from other republics of the former Yugoslavia increased significantly between 1970 and 1990. The consequence of immigration was a high proportion of the young population and changes in the ethnic composition of the municipality. Since 1990 demographic trends have changed. The population began to decline. The emigration of young people is also increasingly prominent. Demographic projections show that the municipality would lose up to 15% of its population in the next twenty years.