The paper describes the existence and nature of control programs for paratuberculosis for the period 2012-2018 in countries for which there is reliable information. It also assesses the rationale for control programs and the outcome of past and current control programs, and presents recommendations for future control programs.
We have used the properties of the Protein-A matrix and data from chromatography experiments as a basis for the mechanistic modeling of Protein-A chromatography. The generated model allows us to predict matrix saturation and leakage time of the IgG product from the chromatography column. The model serves as a tool to evaluate different protein A loading strategies in an attempt to improve matrix utilization and IgG purification process productivity.
Distribution and dynamics of E. coli ESBL and AmpC were investigated in flocks of broilers and turkeys and in their stable environment. During the breeding period, 22.04% of the samples were positive for ESBL and 10.75% for E. coli AmpC, which were classified into phylogenetic groups A1, D1, B1 and D2. Resistant strains were found in faecal samples, air, and organs of dead animals. To improve such a situation, it will be necessary to reduce the use of antibiotics and introduce new approaches to ensure animal health. Primarily, it will be necessary to ensure better immunity of animals by introducing stable vaccines and passive immunity by applying immunoglobulins orally or by spraying in the air.