The paper presents the first in-depth analysis of the Slovenian cattle trade characterized as a complex network. It explores monthly and yearly static networks in detail as well as assesses the usefulness of global and local network measures for targeted control measures. In the second part, it presents the SI (Susceptible-Infectious) model on the temporal network of possible paratuberculosis spread between cattle herds in Slovenia.
The background and objectives of the COST action "SOUND control", its structure and initial results are presented in this short communication. A survey of the control programs in the participating countries revealed that there are 25 different non-EU regulated cattle diseases for which control programs exist in one or more countries. A comparison between control programs in two countries is shown to illustrate the differences and to highlight the need for a flexible, output-based framework for disease surveillance.
In this study, we examined the way calves are raised on small family farms with fewer than 100 cows. We were interested in how calving is handled, the care of a newborn calf, the performance of painful procedures on calves, the handling of colostrum, the weaning of calves, the feeding of calves, the housing of calves and . Deficiencies in all these areas of rearing often result in a marked deterioration in calf welfare and health. We found common deficiencies in neonatal management, feeding and watering, and sanitation. Many breeders did not know how to raise calves properly and many would need additional training on this topic.