The ProBiS web server is a web server for detection of structurally similar binding sites in the PDB and for local pairwise alignment of protein structures. In this article, we present a new version of the ProBiS web serverthat is 10 times faster than earlier versions, due to the efficient parallelization of the ProBiS algorithm, which now allows significantly fastercomparison of a protein query against the PDB and reduces the calculation time for scanning the entire PDB from hours to minutes. It also features new web services, and an improved user interface. In addition, the new web server is united with the ProBiS-Database and thus provides instant access to pre-calculated protein similarity profiles for over 29 000 non-redundant protein structures. The ProBiS web server is particularly adept at detection of secondary binding sites in proteins. It is freely available athttp://probis.cmm.ki.si/oldversion, and the new ProBiS web server is at http://probis.cmm.ki.si
ProBiS-Database is a searchable repository of precalculated local structural alignments in proteins detected by the ProBiS algorithm in the Protein Data Bank. Identification of functionally important binding regions of the protein is facilitated by structural similarity scores mapped to the query protein structure. PDB structures that have been aligned with a query protein may be rapidly retrieved from the ProBiS-Database, which is thus able to generate hypotheses concerning the roles of uncharacterized proteins. Presented with uncharacterized protein structure, ProBiS-Database can discern relationships between such a query protein and other better known proteins in the PDB. Fast access and a user-friendly graphical interface promote easy exploration of this database of over 420 million local structural alignments. The ProBiS-Database is updated weekly and is freely available online at http://probis.cmm.ki.si/database.
A protocol was developed for the computational determination of the contribution of interfacial amino acid residues to the free energy of protein-protein binding. Thermodynamic integration, based on molecular dynamics simulation in CHARMM, was used to determine the free energy associated with single point mutations to glycine in a protein-protein interface. The hot spot amino acids found in this way were then correlated to structural similarity scores detected by the ProBiS algorithm for local structural alignment. We find that amino acids with high structural similarity scores contribute on average -3.19 kcal/mol to the free energy of protein-protein binding and are thus correlated with hot spot residues, while residues with low similarity scores contribute on average only -0.43 kcal/mol. This suggests that the local structural alignment method provides a good approximation of the contribution of a residue to the free energy of binding and is particularly useful for detection of hot spots in proteins with known structures but undetermined protein-protein complexes.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of clinically used drugs and is often involved in adverse drug−drug interactions. It displays atypical binding and kinetic behavior toward a number of ligands characterized by a sigmoidal shape of the corresponding titration curves, which is indicative of a positive homotropic cooperativity. This requires a participation of at least two ligand molecules, whereby the binding of the first ligand molecule increases the affinity of cytochrome P450 3A4 for the binding of the second ligand molecule. In the current study, a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations was applied to elucidate the physicochemical origin of the observed positive homotropic cooperativity in ketoconazole binding to cytochrome P450 3A4.
Chain-of-state methods are becoming important tools in studying the chemical reaction mechanisms, especially for biomacromolecules. In this article, three chain-of-state methods, the nudged elastic band (NEB) method and the replica path method with restraints or constraints, were tested and compared using three model systems with various sizes and at different levels of theory: alanine dipeptide isomerization, ß-alanine intramolecular condensation, and the matrix metalloproteinase 2 inhibition mechanism. The levels of theory used to describe the three model systems include molecular mechanics (MM), quantum mechanics (QM), and combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM). All three methods could correctly determine a reaction path with reasonable estimation of reaction barriers in most cases. The RMSD measurement with additional weighting schemes provides practically infinite choices of reaction coordinates to describe the reaction progress. These findings demonstrate that the chain-of-state methods are powerful tools when being used carefully to generate a plausible reaction mechanism with full pathway for complex systems at an affordable computational cost.