The main findings are: (1) Most pronounced gender differences were observed for the factor modality visual/auditory; (2) Gender differences in neuroelectric brain responses were observed during the solution of auditory and visual tasks; on the behavioral level only females displayed shorter reaction times for the visual tasks than males. The NIRS showed a more bilateral involvement of the frontal brain areas in females as compared with a more left hemispheric frontal activity in males. The results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males.
Gender related differences in EEG activity were observed in the amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response and the P3 component. Women displayed higher amplitudes than men. These differences were more pronounced for the visual than for the auditory stimuli. The NIRS data showed that males in their frontal brain areas displayed a higher percentage of StO2 than did females; males also showed a higher increase in %StO2 during task performance as compared with the resting condition. The data are discussed in the theoretical framework of the evolutionary theory of human spatial sex differences.
Two social contexts significantly predicted final grades in math, the eighthgraders' perception of parental academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' classroom behavior (support, academic press, and mastery goal), along with student reports on their motivational beliefs about math. Parents' pressure and support contributed to math grades indirectly (negatively), whereas the contributions of parental pressure, math teachers' academic press, and teachers' mastery goal on achievement were mediated through the students' self-efficacy in this school course.
Contemporary models and empirical findings on the role of (a) heritability and environment, (b) intelligence, personality, academic motivation, parental engagement in a child’s schooling, teachers’ classroom behavior and teaching in students’ academic achievement. The Slovene study in the last triad of compulsory school suggests students’ individual characteristics to be (relatively) the strongest predictors of their attainment: e.g. in math, intelligence and low extraversion contribute directly, while openness and parental education also contribute indirectly, through perceived self-efficacy.
In the published meta-analysis of several Slovenian studies we examined different factors of child language development that are linked to the development of early literacy during early childhood. We examined the effect of preschool teachers systematically reading to children in preschool on children’s language and analyzed the connection of free symbolic play with the development of language among preschool children. We further explored the relationship between family literacy environment and child’s language comprehension, expression, and storytelling ability.