Based on the EEG data (N = 300) and the filtered NIRS data analyses (N = 155) higher power values in females were observed in the ß and ? bands. In the lower-1 ?, lower-2 ? and upper ? bands this difference was pronounced in the parieto-occipital areas. Higher coherences in the ? band in females was observed, whereas a reverse pattern of differences was present in the ß and ? bands. A similar pattern of differences was observed for the ApEn measures. Males showed a higher percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, more irregular and faster spontaneous fluctuations in oxi-Hb and deoxi-Hb.
The central thesis of this chapter is that gender should be a major variable in studying the relation between individual differences in ability and brain activity. The text is divided into two parts. The first part provides a brief overview of gender differences in general and emotional intelligence. The second part focuses on neurphysiological research relating brain activity with the level of ability and gender. A recent study which examined the influence that gender has on brain responses to emotional stimuli is also presented.
Personality domains of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion account for a significant amount of variance to adherence to medical regimen in adolescent hypertensive patients. The three domains predict adherence behaviors differentially. Considering personality, practitioners could identify adolescents at risk for non-adherence and then tailor medical interventions accordingly. Conscientious patients benefit from short interventions aimed at improving self-regulation and excercise focused intervention was recommended to better suit for extraverted adolescents.
A depression and suicide targeting educational programme for primary care physicians was prepared and evaluated. The physicians (experimental and control groups) across 3 regions with similar suicide rates and other health indicators participated. Prescription rates of antidepressants and anxiolytics before and after the intervention were measured; suicide rates over a 3-year span before and after the intervention were compared. The training programme was demonstrated beneficial for the physicians’ ability to recognise and manage depression; no decrease in local suicide rates was observed.
Personality ratings obtained through self-, maternal, and peer reports at two occasions two years apart explained substantial portions of unique variance in students’ GPA concurrently and over time. Conscientiousness and low extraversion were consistently predictive. The results suggest that under-achievers who are low in conscientiousness may profit from educational interventions targeting mastery motivation, whereas extraverts may benefit from engagement in group assignments and perform well at tasks requiring speed.