This study analyzed the psychometric properties of scores on the Slovene version of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) in a sample of 1,334 adolescents (44% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.61). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated five-factor structure of the QIDA: Assertiveness, Heterosexual Relationships, Public Speaking, Family Relationships, and Close Friendships. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were reasonable. Correlations of scores on the QIDA with scores of neuroticism, low extraversion, and low openness, as measured by the Inventory of Child/Adolescent Individual Differences, and scores of fear of negative evaluation, and tension and inhibition in social contacts, as measured by the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents were found, revealing differential links with QIDA subscale scores. Girls reported more difficulties than boys. Age differences showed a small but significant decrease in QIDA total score over adolescence.
This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Slovenian-developed Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SASA; Puklek, 1997; Puklek & Vidmar, 2000) using a community sample (Study 1) and a clinical sample (Study 2). Confirmatory factor analysis in Study 1 replicated the 2-factor structure found by the original authors in a sample of Slovenian adolescents. Test-retest reliability was adequate. Furthermore, the SASA correlated significantly with other social anxiety scales, supporting concurrent validity evidence in Spanish adolescents. The results of Study 2 confirmed the correlations between the SASA and other social anxiety measures in a clinical sample. In addition, findings revealed that the SASA can effectively discriminate between adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and those without this disorder. Finally, cut-off scores for the SASA are provided for Spanish adolescents.
The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early communicative gestures, in productive vocabulary, and in combining words. The difference increased with age. Boys were not found to be more variable than girls. Despite extensive variation in language skills between language communities, the difference between girls and boys remained. This suggests that the difference is caused by robust factors that do not change between language communities.