The paper introduces the concept of customer-based brand equity for a tourism destination and thereby completes previous tourism destination studies which have exclusively investigated the destination image concept. Since no other authors have combined the four proposed dimensions (awareness, image, quality and loyalty) to evaluate a destination, the key purpose of the qualitative research was to clarify the customer-based brand equity concept. Slovenia was analyzed as a tourism destination. In-depth interviews with potential tourists were employed in the qualitative research.
Exponential smoothing methods are very commonly used for forecasting demand in a supply chain context. A common practice is to optimise only the smoothing constants and not the initial parameter values. We show that a considerable reduction in forecast error can be achieved if we treat initial values as well as smoothing constants as decision variables and if the optimisation of the forecasting method is not treated separately from the production or inventory model in which forecasts are used. A method for simultaneous optimisation of demand forecasting and a stock control policy is described.
This article confirms the validity of the hypothesis that national interests were the driving force behind the process and outcome of negotiations for the EU's next financial perspective for 2007–13. The hypothesis is tested by comparing hypothetical coalitions based on quantified national interests (partial net budgetary balances) and the actual (documented) coalitions. Based on these results, the article also discusses implications of the ‘net balances problem’ for the 2008/09 EU budget review.
This paper examines the importance of reference values for executive compensation contracts. The authors use the adoption of pay guidelines, and a well-defined measure of individual-specific reference values to provide evidence on how a change in CEO reference compensation leads to subsequent changes of actual pay. Executive compensation adjusts gradually towards the new reference values, and the speed of the adjustment depends on the corporate governance characteristics: the firm ownership structure, the role of the State and of the employees in the firm decision making.
To meet the Kyoto Protocol’s greenhouse gas emissions targets, the EU has implemented an Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as a cornerstone of its climate policy. The main attribute of this mechanism is its inherent flexibility: companies can reduce actual emissions or buy allowances to emit. Although the EU ETS was launched in 2005, to date little is known about its implications for corporate carbon management. The study provides some original insights into corporate carbon management strategies by deploying a case study of two Slovenian manufacturing companies.