Skeletal muscle composition is valuable information for physicians, athletes/coaches, physiotherapists, scientists, etc. From this information a timing of treatment and final results are depending. Since now only invasive techniques were known, which limits us in everyday use. We have proposed a noninvasive technique, that enables valid and reliable measurement of muscle composition with use of linear displacement sensor and nonpainful electrical stimulation.
Findings of this article suggest a substantial impairment of oxidative function at the muscle level after space simulation, “downstream” to the exercising muscles, that is possibly at the level of blood flow distribution/O2 utilization inside the muscle, peripheral O2 diffusion, and intracellular oxidative metabolism.
The study aimed to characterize curcumin (CCM) (fluorescent yellow curry pigment) labeling of neuronal fibrillar tau inclusions (FTIs) in representative cases of 3 main tauopathies: Alzheimer disease(AD), progressivesupranuclear palsy, and Pick disease. After identification of FTIs in hematoxylin and eosin-stained brain sections, sequential labeling and signal colocalization image analysis were used to compare CCM with thioflavineS (ThS), monoclonal antibody AT8 immunofluorescence, and Gallyas silver staining by visualizing the same FTIs. Curcumin preference for specifictau isoforms was tested with 3-repeat tau and 4-repeat tau isoform-specific immunofluorescence. Curcumin proved highly comparable to ThS and Gallyas staining in its detection of FTIs. When comparing CCM with AT8, ThS, andGallyas staining in AD and progressive supranuclear palsy, 3 types of neuronal tau deposits were observed: nonfibrillar intracellular material labeled only with AT8, fibrillar intracellular inclusions labeled byall the methods, and fibrillar extracellular FTIs labeled with CCM, ThS, and Gallyas staining but not with AT8. Although CCM labeling overlapped with both 3-repeattau and 4-repeat tau in AD, it did not label 3-repeat tau FTIs in Pickdisease probably because of their different ultrastructural characteristics. In summary, CCM fluorescence reliably detected neuronal FTIs in AD and progressive supranuclear palsy and surpassed AT8 immunolabeling in visualizing later stages ofFTIs, including ghost tangles. These results provide the basis for potential future applications of CCM binding of tau aggregates in diagnostic pathology and in vivo.
This empirical research study concerning the weight of school bags was executed intentionally to highlight the importance on the weight of school bags with 11 year-old pupils in comparison with their one-year older peers. We determined that the average weight of a school bag with 11 year old pupils does not exceed ten percent, which is the highest measure for a one hour burden. With students who are one-year older, the weight of the school bag on average increases by 3.5% of a pupil's body weight which represents a 13.2% ratio of a pupils body weight. This figure surpasses the critical boundary of a weight load for over one hour. The cause of such an increase perhaps should be examined within the curriculum of both grades and the increase in the usage of workbooks and other materials in the seventh grade. A concern in the findings is that there is a noticeable increase in spinal problems determined by medical practitioners during systematic health examinations.
Oxidative stress is often associated to inactivity-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy. Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant system stimulated, both at muscular and systemic level, by activation of oxidative processes. We measured changes in glutathione availability, oxidative stress induction and atrophy extent mediated by 35-days of experimental bed rest in vastus lateralis muscle of healthy human volunteers. To assess muscle glutathione synthesis, we applied a novel single-biopsy and double-tracer ([2H2]glycine and [15N]glycine) approach based on evaluation of steady-state precursor incorporation in product. The correlations between the traditional (multiple-samples, one-tracer) and new (one-sample, double-tracer infusion) methods were analyzed in erythrocytes by Passing & Bablok and Altman-Bland tests. Muscle glutathione absolute synthesis rate increased following bed rest from 5.5 1.1 to 11.0 1.5 mmol (kg wet tissue / day)-1 (n=9; p=0.02) while glutathione concentration failed to change significantly. Bed rest induced vastus lateralis muscle atrophy, as assessed by pennation angle changes measured by ultrasonography (from 18.6 1.0 to 15.3 0.9 degrees; p=0.01) and thickness changes (from 2.3 0.2 to 1.9 0.1 cm; p(0.001). Moreover, bed rest increased protein oxidative stress, as measured by muscle protein carbonylation changes (from 0.6 0.1 to 1.00 0.1 Oxy RP-1; p(0.04). In conclusion, we developed in erythrocytes a new minimally-invasive method to determine peptide synthesis rate in human tissues. Application of the new method to skeletal muscle suggests that disuse atrophy is associated to oxidative stress induction as well as to compensatory activation of the glutathione system