Skeletal muscle composition is valuable information for physicians, athletes/coaches, physiotherapists, scientists, etc. From this information a timing of treatment and final results are depending. Since now only invasive techniques were known, which limits us in everyday use. We have proposed a non-invasive technique that enables valid and reliable measurement of muscle composition with use of linear displacement sensor and nonpainful electrical stimulation.
Findings of this article suggest a substantial impairment of oxidative function at the muscle level after space simulation, “downstream” to the exercising muscles, that is possibly at the level of blood flow distribution/O2 utilization inside the muscle, peripheral O2 diffusion, and intracellular oxidative metabolism.
We presented lower extremity neuromuscular patterns during level cycling, 10 and 20% uphill cycling. We have shown that altered body orientation during steep, but not moderate, slope of uphill cycling significantly modified the timing and intensity of several lower extremity muscles; the most affected being those that cross the hip joint and tibialis anterior. The observed modifications in neuromuscular patterns during 20% uphill cycling could have a significant effect on lower extremity joint kinetics and cycling efficiency.