This review summarizes the recent epidemiological changes, virulence factors and clinical aspects of C. difficile which is now considered one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections.
Clostridium difficile was isolated from 247/485 (50.9%) piglet fecal samples, from 4/42 (9.5%) calf fecal samples, and 1/20 (5%) horse fecal samples. Piglet isolates belonged to two toxinotypes (V and 0), four PCR-ribotypes (066, 029, SI 011, SI 010), and six pulsotypes. Bovine isolates were grouped into two toxinotypes (XIa and 0), three PCR-ribotypes (014/020, 002, 033), and three pulsotypes. The only equine isolate was indistinguishable from one calf isolate (XIa/033) in toxinotype, PCR-ribotype, and pulsotype. None of detected genotypes was present in all three animal hosts.