The study was conducted at three locations in the Savinjska region of Slovenia, where soil is contaminated with heavy metals due to the zinc industry (Cinkarna Celje). In Ponikva the soil to a depth of 30 cm contains 0.8 mg kg-1 Cd, 32.2 mg kg-1 Pb and 86 mg Zn kg-1, in Medlog 1.4 mg kg-1 Cd, 37.4 mg kg-1 Pb and 115 mg kg-1 Zn and in Skofja vas 10.9 mg kg-1 Cd, 239.7 mgkg-1 Pb and 1356 mg kg-1 Zn. The pH at the selected sites was between 7.3 and 7.6. In the beginning of September 2006 two hybrids of Brassica napus L. var. napus, PR45 D01 and PR46 W31 suitable for production of biodiesel obtained from Pioneer Seeds Holding GmbH, were sown. After 96 days juvenile and after 277 days mature plants were collected. Parts of plants (root, shoot and seed) were separated and Cd, Pb, Zn, Mo and S determined by ultra-trace ICP-MS. We compared the uptake of Cd, Pb, Zn, Mo and S in different parts of juvenile and mature plants of the two different hybrids, TF (translocation factor), BAF (bioaccumulation factor) and PP (phytoextraction potential) were calculated. The mature hybrid PR46 W31 had higher shootžroot ratio and higher PP for metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) and lower PP for the micronutrient (Mo) and macronutrient (S) on the polluted site. The study demonstrated the potential use of oilseed rape on multiply polluted soils for production of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels. The potential restoration of degraded land could also disburden the use of agricultural land.
In a laboratory study, Portland cement (15%, w/w) was used for solidification/ stabilisation (S/S) of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As contaminated soils from the former industrial site. Soils formed solid monoliths with cement. S/S effectiveness was assessed by measuring the mechanical strength of the monoliths, concentrations of metals in deionised water and TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) soil extracts, and mass transfer of metals. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in water extracts from S/S soils generally decreased, concentrations of As remained unchanged, while concentrations of Cu increased. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in the TCLP extracts from S/S soils were lower than from original soils. Cu extractability was lower in most soil samples, while the extractability of As from S/S soils increased. Overall, the concentration of metals in deionised water and TCLP solution, obtained after extraction of the S/S soils, was below the regulatory limits. S/S greatly reduced the mass transfer of Cd (up to 83-times), Pb (up to 13.7-times) and Zn (up to 294-times). Mass transfer of Ni and As was generally also reduced, while that of Cu increased in some S/S soils. Based on the findings of mass-transfer mechanism analysis the predominant mechanism of release was surface wash-off of metals otherwise physically encapsulated within the cementous soil matrix.
The aim of the paper is to present a critical review of the contemporary approach towards assessment and rehabilitation of strongly polluted land area of old Cinkarna brownfield as well as its vicinity. General site analysis approach was applied comprising the site characterization, risk assessment and site remediation optinos. An old site of a zinc smelter and accompanied chemical industry, that have been in operation for 150 years in the very city centre of Celje, is to be reclaimed for public use. The paper presents basic findings and the preparatory project and some preliminary results.
Brassicaceae family were chosen as characteristic representatives of common vegetation types: Alliaria petiolata typical for forest edge vegetation; Capsella bursapastoris – typical for the arable land; Diplotaxis tenuifolia – typical for road margins; Biscutella laevigata – typical for closed, permanent grasslands, and Cardamine enneaphyllos – typical for the forest ground layer vegetation. Plants were collected at the beginning of flowering at three different locations in Slovenia: 1.) Vremščica Mountain (SW part of Slovenia, presumably unpolluted site); 2.) Celje (town in the middle of Slovenia, high contamination with metals due to the zinc industry), and 3.) Žerjav (Karavanke region of northern Slovenia with a centuryold tradition of lead and zinc mining and smelting activity). Additionally two hybrids of oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) were analyzed, crop plants, sown at differently polluted locations in Celje. Metal pollution of the soil correlated with the concentration of metals in aboveground plant parts, offering to use these species as biomonitors of metal pollution in different types of natural and seminatural vegetation. They can be used for monitoring shortterm changes in heavy metal polluted arable land and urban areas as well as for monitoring long term heavy metal pollution of forests.
This paper presents the impact of the ecological investment in ironworks (dust filter installation) and construction works at a highly contaminated brownfield site on the chemical composition of household dust (HD) and street sediment (SS) in Celje, Slovenia. The evaluation is based on two sampling campaigns: the first was undertaken 1 month before the ecological investment became operational and the second 3 years later. The results show that dust filter installations reduced the content of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, W and Zn on average by 58% in HD and by 51% in SS. No reduction was observed at sampling points in the upwind direction from the ironworks. By contrast, the impact of the construction works on the highly contaminated brownfield site was detected by a significant increase (on average by 37%) of elements connected to the brownfield contamination in SS. Such increase was not detected in HD.