Serine proteases have proven to be promising pharmacological targets in contemporary drug discovery for cancer treatment. Since azaphenylalanine-basedcompounds manifest cytotoxic activity, we have selected serine protease inhibitors designed and synthesized in-house with large hydrophobic naphthalene moiety for screening. The cytotoxic potential of screened molecules was correlated to modifications of R1 residues. The most cytotoxic were compounds with greater basicity; amidinopiperidines, piperidines and benzamidines. Amidinopiperidine-based compounds exert cytotoxicity in low mM range, with IC50 18 mM and 22 mM for inhibitors 15 and 16 respectively. These compounds exhibited selective cytotoxicity towards the Burkitt's lymphoma cells Ramos and Daudi, and proved nontoxic to PMBC, Jurkat and U937. They induce caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by the use of a pan-caspase inihibitor, zVADfmk, which was able to rescue Ramos cells from compound(s)-induced apoptosis. We confirm a disruption of thepro-survival pathway in Burkittʼs lymphoma through NFkB inhibition. The accumulation of phosphorylated precursor (p105) and inhibitory (IkB) molecules with no subsequent release of active NFkB implicated the involvement of proteasome. Indeed, we show that the amidinopiperidine-based compounds inhibit all three proteolytical activities of the human 20S proteasome, with the most prominent effect being on the trypsin-like activity. Consistently, treatment of Ramos cells with these compounds led to an increase in ubiquitinated proteins. The amidinopiperidine-based serine protease inhibitors presented are, as selective inducers of apoptosis in Burkitt's lymphoma cells, promising leads for the development of novel chemotherapeutics.
Background: Targeted radionuclide therapy with high-energy beta-emitters is generally considered suboptimal to cure small tumours ((300 mg). Tumour targeting of the CCK2 receptor-binding minigastrin analogue PP-F11 was determined in a tumour-bearing mouse model at increasing peptide amounts. The optimal therapy was analysed for PP-F11 labelled with 90Y, 177Lu or 213Bi, accounting for the radionuclide specific activities (SAs), the tumour absorbed doses and tumour (radio) biology. Methods: Tumour uptake of 111In-PP-F11 was determined in nude mice bearing CCK2 receptor-transfected A431 xenografts at 1 and 4 h post-injection for escalating peptide masses of 0.03 to 15 nmol/mouse. The absorbed tumour dose was estimated, assuming comparable biodistributions of the 90Y, 177Lu or 213Bi radiolabelled peptides. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was used to calculate the tumour control probabilities (TCP) as a function of tumour mass and growth. Results: Practically achievable maximum SAs for PP-F11 labelled with 90Y and 177Lu were 400 MBq 90Y/nmol and 120 MBq177Lu/nmol. Both the large elution volume from the 220 MBq 225Ac generator used and reaction kinetics diminished the maximum achieved 213Bi SA in practice: 40 MBq 213Bi/nmol. Tumour uptakes decreased rapidly with increasing peptide amounts, following a logarithmic curve with ED50 = 0.5 nmol. At 0.03 nmol peptide, the (300 mg) tumour dose was 9 Gy after 12 MBq 90Y-PP-F11, and for 111In and 177Lu, this was 1 Gy. A curative dose of 60 Gy could be achieved with a single administration of 111 MBq 90Y labelled to 0.28 nmol PP-F11 or with 4 × 17 MBq 213Bi (0.41 nmol) when its α-radiation relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was assumed to be 3.4. Repeated dosing is preferable to avoid complete tumour receptor saturation. Tumours larger than 200 mg are curable with 90Y-PP-F11; the other radionuclides perform better in smaller tumours. Furthermore, 177Lu is not optimal for curing fast-growing tumours. Conclusions: Receptor saturation, specific radiopharmaceutical activities and absorbed doses in the tumour together favour therapy with the CCK2 receptor-binding peptide PP-F11 labelled with 90Y, despite its longer β-particle range in tissue, certainly for tumours larger than 300 mg. The predicted TCPs are of theoretical nature and need to be compared with the outcome of targeted radionuclide experiments.
PURPOSE: Specific overexpression of cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/gastrin receptors has been demonstrated in several tumours of neuroendocrine origin. In some of these cancer types, such as medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), a sensitive diagnostic modality is still unavailable and therapeutic options forinoperable lesions are needed. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT)may be a viable therapeutic strategy in the management of these patients. Several CCK2R-targeted radiopharmaceuticals have been described in recent years. As part of the European Union COST Action BM0607 we studied the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of 12 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated CCK2R binding peptides. In the present study, we analysed binding and internalization characteristics. Stability, biodistribution and imaging studies have been performed in parallel by other centres involved in the project. METHODS: Determination of IC(50) values was performed using autoradiography, with DOTA-peptides displacing (125)I-CCK from receptors on tissue sections from human tumours. Saturation binding and internalization experiments were performed using (111)In-labelled peptides. The rat AR42J cellline and the human A431-CCK2R transfected cell line were utilized for in vitro experiments; dissociation constants (K(d)) and apparent number of binding sites (B(max)) were determined. Internalization was determined in receptor-expressing cells by incubating with tracer amounts of peptide at 37 and 4°C for different times up to 120 min. Surface-bound peptide was then stripped either by acid wash or subsequent incubation with 1 ?M unlabelled peptide at 4°C. RESULTS: All peptides showed high receptor affinity with IC(50) values ranging from 0.2 to 3.4 nM. Saturation experiments also showed high affinity with K(d) values in the 10(-9)-10(-8) M range. B(max) values estimated in A431-CCK2R cells ranged from 0.6 to 2.2 * 10(6) per cell. All peptides showed high levels of internalization when incubated at 37°C. CONCLUSION: All DOTA-conjugated peptides showed high receptor binding and internalization properties and appear suitable for further characterization, as described in other articles of this issue.
BACKGROUND: In an open-label blinded study, we compared intracoronary and transendocardial CD34(+) cell transplantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 40 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 were randomized to receive intracoronary injection and 20 received transendocardial CD34(+) cell delivery. In both groups, CD34(+) cells were mobilized by filgrastim, collected via apheresis, and labeled with technetium-99m radioisotope for single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In the intracoronary group, cells were injected intracoronarily in the artery supplying segments of greater perfusion defect on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. In the transendocardial group, electroanatomic mapping was used to identify viable but dysfunctional myocardium, and transendocardial cell injections were performed. Nuclear single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging for quantification of myocardial retention was performed 18 hours thereafter. At baseline, groups did not differ in age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels. The number of CD34(+) cells was also comparable (105 ± 31 × 10(6) in the transendocardial group versus 103 ± 27 × 10(6) in the intracoronary group, P=0.62). At 18 hours after procedure, myocardial retention was higher in the transendocardial group (19.2 ± 4.8%) than in the intracoronary group (4.4 ± 1.2%, P(0.01). At 6 months, left ventricular ejection fraction improved more in the transendocardial group (+8.1 ± 4.3%) than in the intracoronary group (+4.2 ± 2.3%, P=0.03). The same pattern was observed for the 6-minute walk test distance (+125 ± 33 m in the transendocardial group versus +86 ± 13 m in the intracoronary group, P=0.03) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (-628 ± 211 versus -315 ± 133 pg/mL, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, transendocardial CD34(+) cell transplantation is associated with higher myocardial retention rates and greater improvement in ventricular function, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and exercise capacity compared with intracoronary route. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01350310. KEYWORDS: cardiomyopathy, dilated, heart failure, stem cells
Purpose Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder which is diagnosed biochemically and for which therapy is surgical. A prerequisite for minimally invasive surgery, which minimizes morbidity and cost, is accurate localization of the involved gland(s). The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue. Methods 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT and conventional parathyroid scintigraphic imaging consisting of 99mTc-sestaMIBI SPECT/CT, 99mTc-sestaMIBI dual-phase imaging and 99mTc-sestaMIBI/pertechnetate subtraction imaging were performed in 24 patients. The diagnostic performance of the imaging methods was compared against histology as the gold standard and postoperative serum Ca2+ and iPTH values. Results The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT were 92 % and 100 %, respectively, in contrast to 49 % and 100 %, 46 % and 100 %, and 44 % and 100 % for 99mTc-sestaMIBI SPECT/CT, 99mTc-sestaMIBI/pertechnetate subtraction imaging and 99mTc-sestaMIBI dual-phase imaging, respectively. Combined conventional scintigraphic imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 64 % and 100 %, respectively. The performance of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT was superior particularly in patients with multiple lesions or hyperplasia. Conclusion 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT appears to be a promising, effective imaging method for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue.