The purpose of the present study was to explore the ways people achieve their happiness employing two approaches, i.e. a dimension-centred, focusing on the three orientations to happiness (orientation to pleasure, meaning, and engagement), and a person-centred, focusing on patterns of these three orientations within individuals. The predictive validity of individual orientations to happiness and their characteristic patterns for three aspects of subjective well-being was explored. Adult participants (N = 1,142; 33 % male) filled-in the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire and the Mental Health Continuum-Long Form. Applying the dimension-centred approach, results suggested that all of the orientations represent possible and appropriate ways to achieve happiness. Person-centred analysis yielded four groups of individuals with similar profiles of ways towards happiness and membership of these groups was associated with individual%s well-being. Leading an empty life was associated with the poorest outcomes and full life with the highest well-being, with moderate well-being characterizing individuals pursuing pleasurable and meaningful life. More precisely, pleasurable life and meaningful life had relatively similar predictive value for psychological well-being but demonstrated discriminant validity for emotional and social well-being. This suggests that the profiles are meaningfully different and highlights the importance of the multiplicative influences of the three specific orientations to happiness.
The construct of individualism-collectivism (IND-COL) has become the definitive standard in cross-cultural psychology, management, and related fields. It is also among the most controversial, in particular, with regard to the ambiguity of its dimensionality: Some view IND and COL as the opposites of a single continuum, whereas others argue that the two are independent constructs. We explored the issue through seven different tests using original individual-level data from 50 studies and meta-analytic data from 149 empirical publications yielding a total of 295 samplelevel observations that were collected using six established instruments for assessing IND and COL as separate constructs. Results indicated that the dimensionality of IND-COL may depend on (a) the specific instrument used to collect the data, (b) the sample characteristics and the cultural region from which the data were collected, and (c) the level of analysis. We also review inconsistencies, deficiencies, and challenges of conceptualizing IND-COL and provide guidelines for developing and selecting instruments for measuring the construct, and for reporting and meta-analyzing results from this line of research.
This study provides an interdisciplinary account determining how children and adolescents understand urban and architectural aspects of sustainable development. The concept of sustainability implies complex relations between ethical, economical, social, technical and other qualities of our environment. The concept is difficult to understand for children who lack the abilities of abstract reasoning and multidimensional thinking. A new measure of sustainability understanding was formed based on pictorial rather than textual format and was applied to a large sample of over 2000 participants aged 6-19 years. The results indicated that girls had higher levels of appreciation toward sustainability issues than boys. The results also showed that understanding of sustainability issues increased progressively with age, particularly with adolescents from urban environments. The findings are discussed in terms of cognitive changes in adolescence and their implications for educational policy.
The role of personality traits in 674 emerging adult students (aged 18 to 28; 80% female) individuation in relation to parents was investigated cross-sectionally. Self-reports were obtained by the Big Five Inventory and the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults. Personality was predictive of measures of individuation, over and above the students' background characteristics, suggesting that personality can be viewed as an inner resource shaping experiences of individuation. Agreeableness contributed to support seeking, and connectedness with both parents, and Extraversion predicted connectedness with mothers. Conscientiousness was related negatively to both perceptions of parental intrusiveness and fear of disappointing the mother, whereas Neuroticism was predictive of perceptions of maternal intrusiveness, and fear of disappointing the parents. Openness was associated with self-reliance in relationships with both parents, and demonstrated negative links with support seeking and connectedness with mothers. Few moderating effects of age and gender on Extraversion-individuation associations were revealed.
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students` math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the study. Different measures were used to assess students` previous knowledge, personality traits, subject-specific interest, self-efficacy, immediate action and procrastination/distractibility. Path analysis was used to test the model of direct effects of gender, previous knowledge and personality traits on math grade and indirect effects of previous knowledge and personality traits on the grade through subject-specific motivational variables. The results of path analysis revealed that we can explain 40 % of the variance in math grade with variables included in the research. Gender, previous knowledge and personality traits have direct and indirect impacts on achievement. Among personality variables, conscientiousness proved to be the most important direct and indirect predictor of math grade. A significant part of variance in math grade can be explained by taking into account more general individual differences on the one hand and subject-specific motivational processes, which act as mediators, on the other hand. In promoting students` math achievement, teachers should take into account students` personality traits and try to develop their motivational self-regulation.