This study explored children, preschool, and family characteristics that contribute to individual differences in the developmental trajectories of social competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior. Teachers reported on personality and social adjustment of 304 children at ages 3, 4, 5,and 6 years. Predictors of social adjustment included: (1) childrenʼs genderand the ratings of extraversion, conscientiousness, disagreeableness, and neuroticism; (2) maternal and paternal education, and parent-reported parenting practices at the beginning of the study; and (3) the childʼs age of entry to preschool. Child social adjustment was most strongly predicted by teacher-rated child personality. The change in a child's rank-order position on social competence was related to the change in the rankorder position on extraversion; the change in internalizing behavior was related particularly toa change in neuroticism, and the change in externalizing behavior especially to a change in disagreeableness. Specific family variables and the child's age at the time of entry into preschool played a minor but statistically significant role.
Background: Psychological stress is known to affect the immune system. The Limbic Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (LHPA) axis has been identified as the principal path of the bidirectional communication between the immune system and the central nervous system with significant psychological activators. Personality traits acted as moderators of the relationship between life conflicts and psychological distress. This study focuses on the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and immune regulation as indicatedby Lymphocyte counts. Subjects and methods: Our study included 32 professional soldiers from the Slovenian Army that completed the Big Five questionnaire (Goldberg IPIP-300). We also assessed their white blood cell counts with a detailed lymphocyte analysis using flow cytometry. The correlations between personality variables and immune system parameters were calculated. Furthermore, regression analyses were performed using personality variables as predictors and immune parameters as criteria. Results: The results demonstrated that the model using the Big Five factors as predictors of Lymphocyte counts is significant in predicting the variance in NK and B cell counts. Agreeableness showed the strongest predictive function. Conclusions: The results offer support for the theoretical models that stressed the essential links between personality and immune regulation. Further studies with larger samples examining the Big five factors and immune system parameters are needed.
The study examines the relationship between the dimensions of personality (Big Five, stability, plasticity, general factor of personality /GFP/ and the dimensions of the quality of life (physical, psychological, social, environmental quality and general factor of the quality of life /GQL/). Different multivariate analyses on the sample of 129 adult participants of both sexes clearly yielded a substantial connection between the dimensions of both domains (personality and quality of life) including the correlation between GFP and GQL (0,42). SEM analysius also confirmed the hypothesised causal influence of personality upon quality of life. The results thus clearly demonstrated the association between personality and quality of life, which is further in concordance with the numerous findings indicating the essential relationships between the personality factors on one side and the factors concerning the quality of life on the other.