Antibiotic resistance in association with genotypes was investigated on 52 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from different sources including samples from chicken meat supply chain in Slovenia. The MLST clonal complex (CC) 21 was identified as the genetic group with the highest incidence of quinolone resistant isolates. Furthermore, the quinolone resistance spreading was characterized by sequence analysis of quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) within gyrA. Based on the high genetic relatedness of QRDR among isolates from CC 21, we confirmed the clonal spreading of quinolone resistance.
Since the primary risk factor associated with intestinal campylobacteriosis is consuming and handling Campylobacter – contaminated poultry meat all stages of poultry production chain should be considered and different professionals and institutions must be involved in joint research of Campylobacter contamination and risk assessment. Cooperation between the Veterinary Faculty, Institute of Microbiology and Parasitology, and the Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Food Science and Technology, is well running since 2008 with several projects – a bilateral one with Serbia has finished in 2011, but current research projects include antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin and Campylobacter contamination and risk assessment of poultry and poultry meat production. All stakeholders of the poultry production chain as well as the consumers must oblige for better preventive measures to keep the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in acceptable limits.
This study studied the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in broilers at poultry farms (62.0 %) and in broiler carcasses at slaughter line (58.1 %) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Genetic diversity of isolates was limited: identical or very similar profiles were detected on individual Campylobacter-positive farms. Carcass cross contamination could not be observed in slaughter line samples: carcass isolates showed identical profiles to campylobacters from caeca from the same broiler batch.
The aim of our paper is to expose microbiological and epidemiological situation regarding campylobacters in humans and broilers in Slovenia in the period 2007-2011, and to compare data on antimicrobial resistance of human and broiler C. jejuni isolates. The incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans in Slovenia is increasing since 2008 and is all the time superior to European average. In 2010 it was 49.9 cases per 100,000 population. The rate of campylobacter colonization in broilers, chicken carcass contamination and meat contamination ranged from 73% to 88%, 81% to 93% and 49% to 79%. Resistance of human and poultry C. jejuni isolates has always been very low against gentamicin and erithromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was moderate to high in humans and very high in poultry. Resistance to ciprofloxacin has been very high and stable in humans and is particularly high in broilers. High campylobacter colonization rate in broilers, high proportion of contaminated carcasses and chicken meat and extremely high C. jejuni resistance to ciprofloxacin in humans and broilers have become a problem in Slovenia.
Advantages and disadvantages of molecular techniques used in diagnosis and control of veterinary infectious diseases were shown.