The uptake, distribution and determination of Se and its compounds in macrophyte Veronica anagallis-aquatica were investigated. V. anagallis-aquatica and sediments were sampled in years 2009-2011 and in 2013 in three Slovenian watercourses flowing through an agricultural area, where addition of Se in feedstuffs has been performed for about 25 years. Se contentc in sediments were up to 0.86 µg g-1 and in whole plant varied from 0.186 to 1.535 µg g-1, all on dry weight basis. Se content was measured also in different plant parts; highest contents were found in roots and lowest in stems. Separation of extractable Se compounds was performed by ion exchange chromatography and for on-line detection, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used. The results showed that only approximately 24% of Se in the macrophyte was extracted using enzyme Protease XIV. Extractable Se in plant parts varied from 10.5% in roots to 29.6% in leaves. Identification of Se(IV) and Se(VI) was achieved but no Se-amino acids were detected even at highest Se content. According to our results, we assume that 25 years of Se addition in feedstuff shows minimal impact on Se content in the selected agricultural area.
Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using microproton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome.
The colonisation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on roots of grapevines were investigated in production vineyards located along a 500 km long stretch of karst along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The comparison of the AMF communities on the roots of these grapevines showed that the fungal community associated with grapevine roots seems to be relatively stable, with inter-vineyard variability comparable to intra-vineyard variability. Some of the changes in the fungal communities were attributed to environmental factors (plant-available P) and location of the vineyard, although the latter could also have been influenced by an unmeasured environmental factor. A total of 27 taxa of fungi were identified, including Glomus indicum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of grapevine colonisation with this fungi.
The occurrence and germination of seeds of Fallopia japonica, F.x bohemica and F. sachalinensis in Slovenia were determined. The amounts of nuclear DNA were measured and potential pollen donors were determined. Sexual reproduction was confirmed, highest level of seeds developed on F. japonica plants. Genome size corresponded to 3 ploidy levels. F.x bohemica was the most frequent pollen donor.
The aim was to determine how the nutritional composition of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sprouts is affected by the mineral composition of different waters used during their cultivation. We used tap water (TW) and two mineral-rich waters (MRWs), namely moderately mineral-rich water (MMRW) and extremely mineral-rich water (EMRW), originating from springs that contain naturally present mineral elements. Grain germination was not negatively affected by MRWs, however, EMRW impeded radicle growth, and consequently prevented sprout development. In comparison to cultivation in TW, cultivation in MMRW resulted in higher Na, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in both sprouts. There were no water-related effects on distribution of mineral elements within plant species. Only in Tartary buckwheat, cultivation in MMRW resulted in less dietary fibre and catechin and more quercetin. By capturing compositional profiles of mineral elements and bioactive compounds in Tartary buckwheat and wheat sprouts, we identified the potential for selective enhancement of MMRW. We suggest further work using different spring MRWs to identify optimal conditions for cultivation of different sprouts.