A model acknowledging reaction kinetics and thermal conduction during waste end-of-life (ELT) tyre pyrolysis was developed based on the individual consideration of elastomers, namely natural (NR), butadiene (BR) and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber; fabric, that is rayon, nylon and aramid; and wire. External diffusional and thermal film resistances proved to be negligible during the thermal cracking. An algorithm was developed to extract pre-exponential factors, activation energies, the orders of reactions, the enthalpies of reactions, and transport parameters. The pyrolysis of various formulations at different volumetric flow rates and heating rates was monitored by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the pertinent thermodynamic properties (density, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity and diffusivity) were determined separately. The un-decomposable weight fraction containing carbon black, char and ash was 39% for the investigated rubber and 13% for the fabric formulation. The sensitivity analysis of the pyrolysis on compound and process(operating) conditions was performed. The obtained results (taking intoaccount their drawbacks) with the additional measurements and modelling may be used for the thermo-chemical treatment reactor scale-up and optimization, and consequently, a suitable design of energy and products recovery instead of disposal or landfilling, thus minimizing hazardous waste and contamination to soil and water resources.
Effectively implementing various energy and environmental policies contributesto the acceleration of energy performance, a reduction in negative environmental impacts, and increased deployment of renewable resources. The MEEMS (municipal energy and environmental management system) performs the almost inconceivable role of accomplishing prerequisite targets at the national level and, consequently, the European and World levels also. Therefore, a proper infrastructure for MEEMS needs to be effectively applied in order to implement policy initiatives. A novel organisational framework of MEEMS is proposed and is constituted upon three pillars: integration of the municipal metabolism approach, the KBS (knowledge-based system), and the MTIS (municipal technology innovation system). By properly addressing the dynamics of the MEES (municipal energy and environmental system), and the new conceptual organisation of MEEMS, a need for the inclusion of innovative elements can be defined regarding support mechanisms. Integration of the end-user approach defines the fundamental orientation of modern MEEMS. This new concept paves a pathway towards an intelligent energy and environmental system. This paper describes an implementation of the new conceptual design of MEEMS within the urban municipality energy system of Ptuj, Slovenia.
In this paper, we examine different scenarios for appropriate environment regulation of degraded areas with silvopastoral system establishment using integrated computer-based deterministic simulation and a multi-criteria decision model. We test the possibility for the wild game farming of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in the game enclosure. The simulation model can simulate different scenarios for periods of 30 years and 50 years. Scenarios are further assessed with a multi-criteria decision model using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (supported by the software tool Expert Choice (EC) 2000TM). With the multi-criteria assessment, EC = 0.054 scenario for a period of 50 years is considered most appropriate for environment regulation. The scenario includes organic farming of red deer in a silvopastoral system, settlement of all four areas in the first year, and hinds intended for sale. The silvopastoral system includes the tree species Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Prunus avium, and Alnus glutinosa, with a tree density of 248 tree/ha (62 of each tree species/ha) intended for logging after 50 years. The net present value (NPV) of this scenario at an 8.0% annual discount rate is 280.685 €/ha, while the internal rate of return (IRR) slightly exceeds 10%.
The paper proposes a novel concept for renewable network covering entire renewable value chain with division on supply, demand and technology sections. The organisation of renewable network covering all sections is deemed to be vital for accomplishing the optimal distribution and deployment of renewable energy sources.
Polyacryl–nanoclay composites are new class of materials obtained by dispersing montmorillonite clay nanoplatelets (nanoclay) into the polymer matrix. In present work we investigate and confirmed that montmorillonite nanoclay significantly enhances barrier properties of acrylic composite. Two stage of dispersion process was used to prepare polyacry–nanoclay composites. Different percentages of montmorillonite clay nanolayers were added to polyacryl dispersion and applied on steel panel with 0% (w/w), 1% (w/w), 2% (w/w) and 4% (w/w) of nanoclay as composites. Performance of nanoclay intercalation in polyacryl composite was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the structure characteristics of samples were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effectiveness of prepared nanocomposites was identified by the hardness measurements and mechanical properties. Further anticorrosion characteristics, especially barrier properties were indirectly detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This method was also used for the determination of montmorilonite nanoclay optimal concentration in acrylic composite where optimal barrier properties were achieved.