Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850 °C and 900 °C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water–gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements.
Among other applications, electroporation is used for the inactivation of pathogens and extraction of substances from microorganisms in liquids where large scale flow systems are used. The aim of our work was therefore to test a pulse generator that enables continuous pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment for Escherichia coli inactivation and microalgae lipid extraction. In the continuous flow PEF system, the flow rate was adjusted so that each bacterial cell received a defined number of pulses. The results of PEF flow treatment showed that the number of pulses influences E. coli inactivation to the same extent as in the previously described cuvette system, i.e., batch system. The continuous flow PEF system was also tested and evaluated for lipid extraction from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In control experiments, lipids were extracted via concentration of biomass, drying and cell rupture using pressure or an organic solvent. In contrast, electroporation bypasses all stages, since cells were directly ruptured in the broth and the oil that floated on the broth was skimmed off. The initial experiments showed a 50% oil yield using the electroporation flow system in comparison to extraction with organic solvent.
Thin-film oxygen sensors were prepared using a spin-coating technique, where a tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex - (RuDPP) in various solvents and silicones deposited on different substrates, was used for sensor production. By changing the spin-coating set-up's parameters, the homogeneous sensor coatings and optimal sensor response to oxygen was studied - the sensors were exposed to various concentrations of oxygen within the range from 0 to 100%. During the presented study, the optimal results were obtained when 150 µL of sensor solution was applied onto Dataline foil using silicone E4 and solvent chloroform. A spin-coater at three different stages and rotation at speeds was used: 750/700 rpm for 3 s, 300 rpm for 3 s and 150 rpm for 4 s. The spin-coating technique has several benefits: fast process time, easy to use, and is an appropriate technique for low-volume operations. It allows for the modification and preparation of several sensor series using minimal reagent consumption. Disadvantage of this technique has to be mentioned namely the uneven film thickness in the radial direction. This mainly depends on the experimental set-up (volume, rotation-time and speed, solvent viscosity, and evaporation). Spin-coating as an alternative and very flexible technique for oxygen-sensors' preparation is suggested for laboratory-scale work, where the majority of experimental data could be used when new-coating methods are researched or implemented.