The seismic retrofitting measures which are appropriate for buildings belonging to the architectural heritage are limited, since the extent to which such buildings are allowed to be altered is severely limited. In the paper the possibilities which exist for the implementation of base isolation in the case of the seismic upgrade of unreinforced masonry (URM) structures belonging to the valuable architectural heritage have been investigated. A new methodology for the modelling of URM buildings, based on an equivalent frame model with plastic hinges, was used for this purpose. A case study involving a typical neo-renaissance masonry building is presented, in which base isolation is implemented, and a comparison is made with the response of the building in its original state. A refined approach for the selection of proper isolation devices is proposed which is based on the nonlinear static (pushover) analysis of such buildings and on the desired level of seismic protection, with reference to the code-based damage limit states. Additionally, the incremental nonlinear dynamic analyses were also applied in order to estimate what increases in seismic safety could be achieved if the employed base isolation system was used in the case of different seismic intensities.
This study provides an interdisciplinary account determining how children and adolescents understand urban and architectural aspects of sustainable development. The concept of sustainability implies complex relations between ethical, economical, social, technical and other qualities of our environment. The concept is difficult to understand for children who lack the abilities of abstract reasoning and multiŽdimensional thinking. A new measure of sustainability understanding was formed based on pictorial rather than textual format and was applied to a large sample of over 2000 participants aged 6-19 years. The results indicated that girls had higher levels of appreciation toward sustainability issues than boys. The results also showed that understanding of sustainability issues increased progressively with age, particularly with adolescents from urban environments. The findings are discussed in terms of cognitive changes in adolescence and their implications for educational policy.
The study of terraced landscapesis becoming an increasingly important area of international research. this paper starts by presenting the most important research and professional activities related to terraced landscapes and examples ofstudying them around the globe. This is followed by a detailed presentation of the features of the unique terraced landscape in the Brkini Hills, Slovenia. For a more detailed analysis, five villages were selected in the central and western part of the region. Interdisciplinary research includes studying extremely unfavorable demographic processes, natural factors at work in the modern terraced landscape, historical changes in landscape phenomena, and a detailed observation of the terrace forms that comprise the terraced landscape. Despite modern mechanized farming, the remaining farmers are finding it increasingly difficult to maintain the terraced landscape, which is also threatened by afforestation. the mixture of very long terrace platforms and the distinct intermediate slopes presents a unique experiential value that is increasingly being lost
The history of prison architecture concerns the development of various design formats. In contemporary terms, punishment and re-socialization are the two equally important purposes of a prison institution. Rightfully, the contemporary model of prison architecture may be viewed, inter alia, as a spatial response to the re-socialization programme. Based on a comprehensive literature review, critical discussion, and scientific description, this paper defines the main qualitative elements of prison architecture, which responds to the requirements for re-socialization of inmates, and further explains the way in which each response is provided. From these architectural and design attributes, a list of 30 indicators of the spatial response to re-socialization was established. Furthermore, by using the derived indicators, a comparative analysis of four contemporary European prisons was conducted. The results showed both similarities and differences in the spatial response to the re-socialization programme, indicating that the spatial potential for re-socialization of inmates may be developed by using various approaches to prison design.
The new directives and standards about rational and efficient energy use strictly regulate that thermal bridges have to be avoided, and that the thermal insulation (TI) layer should run without interruptions all around the building – even under it or its foundations. For the applications of a TI layer beneath a building’s foundations an appropriate TI material has to be used. Beside its thermal insulation characteristics, the selected TI material has to demonstrate sufficient compressive strength and water resistance, minimal long-term creep, and good durability. One of the most commonly used thermal isolative materials in practice is extruded polystyrene foam (XPS). In general, rather limited research has been performed up until now into the behaviour of XPS foam. As far as is known to the authors, the cyclic compressive and shear stress–strain behaviour of XPS foam, which is essential for its seismic response in earthquake engineering applications, has not yet been researched. The paper summarizes the results of laboratory tests performed in the testing Laboratory of Civil and Geodetic Engineering Faculty at the University of Ljubljana. The aim of the investigation was to determine the mechanical characteristics of XPS foam which are essential for the seismic analysis of modern low-energy building structures, where XPS boards are used as a TI layer beneath the building’s foundations.
One of the questions that architecture currently faces asks whether architecture can still maintain a position of resistance against the regime of globalised capitalism that dominates the world today. Or is the only position that remains open to it to work as a constituent part of this regime and its mechanism? The starting point of the book is that architecture always already overcomes this dilemma. It is a practice, that by virtue of its inner structure, works such that it is not a constituent part of the mechanism of the given world, and nor does it work in such a way as to resist this mechanism. Rather, it is a practice that is founded on itself, and thus has the potential to be and work in the world irrespective of the world and its demands. Architecture, which effectuates this innate potential, is architecture as a creative practice. The book outlines such practice of architecture. It develops four concepts and with them it elaborates the fundamental structural logic of architecture. This is the logic according to which architecture itself is built; and it is the logic that determines the way in which architecture appears and works “outside itself”. Both meanings are inseparably connected: because architecture is built in a special way, because it is a practice that is founded on itself, it works in the way that it breaches the world from within. One of the fundamental theses of this book, therefore, asserts that precisely in architecture's self-supporting makeup lies its power to break – and break with – the frameworks of the given world.
The paper deals with Christian sacral architecture in the period bordered on one side by forming its identity and with schism in the Curch on the other. Comparative analysis of sacral complexes from that period with the caracteristics of the early Christian places of worship shows us two clearly recognizable architectural inculturations of Christianity. After schism they will become the core of their identity. On the West we recognize it in strict use of longitudinal type of space. Bacause of intensive dispersion of symbolic power primary from single altar to the numerous liturgical focuses and bacause of merging eucharist with saintliness it became even more evident expression of the ecclesiastic institutional power. In the tragic period of iconoclasm the Christian East on the other hand claryfied its understanding of the role of sacred architecture as a place of men’s deification. In its centrality, clearly hierarhical arrangement and symbolic legibility became codified as a icon of the god’s revelation.
Paper deals with reasons for radical changes in liturgical space after the Second Vatican Council. Proces of liturgical reform includes three significant steps: idea, plan and it’s realization. Study on idea shows us wish of the Church to re-define role and identity of Christian liturgical space firmly grounded in her rich architectural tradition. Idea imbibes from two refined springs: universal update (’aggiornamento’) and re-actualization of the active (full) participation in the liturgy (’partecipatio actuosa’). In the question of planning the implementation of the idea we find definition of identity, internal typology, main purposes and specific values of the christian art, competences of the local churches and also foudation commisions for sacred art as a body for researching as much as advisory aid to bishops. Supreficially understanding the idea, omission significance of its connectedness with development principles of liturgical space, strong initiative of liturgical movement which was before the Second Vatican Council stimulated numbers of one-sided architectural realisations and uncritical coquetry of the Church with rapidly changeable contemporary trends in profane architecture, were turned searching for modern liturgical space into uncontrolled experiment.
This article is seen as a base for development of co-design interfaces for urban space. Presented research aims at developing visual digital 3D city models to enhance public participation in local urban projects and to be also used as collaborative tools in urban design. Digital urban city models are created with the objective of helping urban designers, planners, investors and government in their decision-making processes, to make the communication and collaboration with the lay public easier. The article firstly addresses the problem of the diversity of views of city models and consequently the way of combining information you can get from each view by shifting between different views (between pedestrian, intermediate and bird view). This article is seen as a base for further development of communication and collaborative tools for public participation in urban design which will involve multiple channels used to introduce, inform and involve people in urban design debates. Secondly, the article points out that digital city models, presented from multiple views and being part of a more complex collaborative tool could also be an educative element, where the lay public could be educated in urban design and the profession could learn something from lay public too - together they can design a shared urban vision. Finally, we will discuss our experience with the Urban Experimental Lab, a platform for public participation in urban design, based in SIM Lab in Vienna.
With society turning increasingly to sustainable development, sharper demands are being made concerning energy efficiency and other properties that mean reductions in the negative effects of the building on the environment and people. This means that architects must have a suitably adapted solution already in the early design phase, as this has the greatest influence on the final result. Current tools and methods used for this are either focused only on individual topics or are too complex and not adapted for independent use by architects. The paper presents a simplified method for evaluating building sustainability (SMEBS) which addresses these needs. It is intended as a tool to aid architects in the early project planning phases as it allows a quick evaluation of the extent to which the demands of sustainable building are fulfilled. The method was developed on the basis of a study of international building sustainability assessment methods (BSAM) and standards in this field. Experts in sustainable construction were invited to determine weights for assessment parameters using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Their judgements reflect the specific characteristics of the local environment.