Single-family residential sector comes to the forefront in consideration of inefficient land use in urban areas. A lack of legislation, planning and evaluation reflects negatively on urban ecosystems, environment, natural balance and quality of life, and contributes to land deficiency. On the other hand, conditions on wider location and lot itself play significant role in achieving good ecological quality of residential unit and, further, of urban area in general. Formation of criteria for ecological evaluation of urban residential lots was proposed as a solution to this duality, and methodological path leading to criteria development was described. General methodology was then applied on two examples: cities Belgrade and Ljubljana, and resulting criteria were established for both. Local specificities manifested in variations among two proposals. Oppositely, common issues allowed the application of criteria in both cases. Beside the fact that evaluation systems designed for local level tackle local problems in the most comprehensive way, comparison showed that, while it is possible to apply criteria developed for Belgrade area in Ljubljana case, there exist major constraints in the immediate application of criteria proposed for Ljubljana area in Belgrade case, due to significant variations in reached overall (sustainable) urban development level.
In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS) model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model wereadded, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for officeretrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.
The study of terraced landscapesis becoming an increasingly important area of international research. this paper starts by presenting the most important research and professional activities related to terraced landscapes and examples ofstudying them around the globe. thisisfollowed by a detailed presentation of the features of the unique terraced landscape in the Brkini Hills, Slovenia. For a more detailed analysis, five villages were selected in the central and western part of the region. Interdisciplinary research includes studying extremely unfavorable demographic processes, natural factors at work in the modern terraced landscape, historical changes in landscape phenomena, and a detailed observation of the terrace forms that comprise the terraced landscape. Despite modern mechanized farming, the remaining farmers are finding it increasingly difficult to maintain the terraced landscape, which is also threatened by afforestation. the mixture of very long terrace platforms and the distinct intermediate slopes presents a unique experiential value that is increasingly being lost.
In this paper, the seismic response of precast balcony cantilever structural elements for prevention of thermal bridges was analysed. This solution has been developed in seismic non-prone areas with the main purpose of eliminating a thermal bridge at the point where the balcony is fixed to the building. The solution has been specially made to withstand vertical static loading, not accounting for eventual vertical seismic loads in the case of transferring the solution to more active seismic zones. This paper deals with the seismic analysis of existing precast cantilever elements exposed to vertical accelerations and has proven that some elements in the case of lifting are not sufficient from the structural safety point of view. The results of the main research results obtained by numerous seismic analyses can be summarized as follows: 1) the insertion of a precast load-bearing thermal insulation element increases the flexibility of RC fixed base cantilevers and therefore limits their length to 300cm–400cm, 2) vertical seismic loads can result in the cantilever uplift, which means that tensile stresses could appear also at the bottom of the cross-section, 3) precast elements, that appear on the market to this day, do not have the appropriate steel reinforcement in the bottom part of the cross-section. For this reason, the possibility of damage is considerably higher for precast cantilever structural elements than for RC fixed base cantilevers. Statistically calculated probability of cantilever uplift for areas with moderate seismic risk, which would result in severe damage, is relatively low (3% in the 50-year life span). However, the calculated value is greater than the maximum acceptable level of seismic risk for collapse. One of the possible solutions to prevent the negative influences of cantilever uplift is to consider the proper reinforcement also at the bottom of the precast elements’ cross-section, or by other measures preventing uplift.
In this contribution we concisely delve into the issue of qualities within the urban spaces as the leverage to power the place responsiveness. The problematic is part of authors' prime research work that seeks for common metrics describing urban qualities, combining both the user view and the professional view on urban form, its functions and design. In this article we outline three existing approaches to categorize urban qualities from the perspective of user experience and further review and summarize five cases of categorization that emerged in contemporary urban design practices. In addition we highlight several important approaches of mental and visual representations that were coined and used to fully comprehend the urban realities by some of the most acknowledged urban designers of the former century. Final discussion delves into the question of relevance and applicability of methods that, in its essence, dissect place into the categories of quality.