The paper presents present and potential future uses of extracellular vesicles in nanomedicine. It was created within the collaboration in the ANG european COST action BM1202 European network on microvesicles and exosomes in health and disease ME-HAD the experiences and forecasts on the use of extracellular vesicles in therapy were gathered.
Novel mesoporous TiO2@DNA nanohybrid electrodes, combining covalently encoded DNA with meso-porous TiO2 microbeads using dopamine as a linker, were prepared and characterised for application in supercapacitors. Detailed information about donor density, charge transfer resistance and chemical capacitance, which have an important role in the performance of an electrochemical device, were studied by electrochemical methods. The results indicated the improvement of electrochemical performance of the TiO2 nanohybrid electrode by DNA surface functionalisation. A supercapacitor was constructed from TiO2@DNA nanohybrids with PBS as the electrolyte. From the supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the addition of DNA played an important role in improving the specific capacitance of the TiO2 supercapacitor. The nanohybrid electrodes were shown to be stable over long-term cycling, retaining 95% of their initial specific capacitance after 1500 cycles.
This study presents an example of blackwater (0.8 L flush water, faeces, urine and toilet paper) composting from low-flush vacuum toilets, which is a part of a pilot-scale source separation system. Blackwater (BW) was collected from vacuum toilets into a tank and applied over peat filters for particle retention and dewatering on the gravity principle to obtain a solid fraction (SF). Before composting, SF was mixed with pine bark and wheat bran. With no mixing, the thermophilic phase was achieved only in the middle layer and lasted for three weeks. Sanitation was indicated by the inactivation of enterobacterial pathogens, the absence of parasites, and the cessation of phytotoxicity. At the end of composting, the NH4+-N/NO3-N mass ratio was between 0.5 and 3.0, which indicates mature compost that is ready for use in agriculture. In terms of the percentage of dry matter, the nutrients were nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium = 3.0:3.2:1.6, with a favourable ratio of C:N = 10, indicating the biological stability of the produced compost. The tested pilot-scale model has thus proved that the composting of SF is a viable option as a part of the separation system.
Sunscreen UV-filters play an important role among emerging contaminants. In the present research the reactions of 4-tert-butyl-4’-methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), the most common UV filter in the formulation of sunscreens, were studied under the combined influence of active chlorine and UV-irradiation. Twenty five compounds were identified by GC/MS as transformation products of avobenzone in reactions of aquatic UV-irradiation and chlorination with sodium hypochlorite. Although the toxicities of the majority of these products remain unknown substituted chlorinated phenols and acetophenones are known to be rather toxic. Combined action of active chlorine and UV-irradiation results in the formation of some products (chloroanhydrides, chlorophenols) not forming in conditions of separate application of these disinfection methods. Therefore caring for people «well-being» it is of great importance to apply the most appropriate disinfection method.
In this study we have focused on 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), degradation product of chlorpyrifos. Photolysis experiments were conducted in order to elucidate its degradation mechanism. Identification of products was performed using the LC-MS technique. TIC chromatogram (ESI, negative ion mode) of the reaction mixture after 30 min of irradiation revealed the presence of several peaks. One of them has already been reported previously. Two other products have been identified in this study for the first time. They have been formed by radical attack of the reactive OH• species on the carbonyl group followed by the corresponding N–C or C–C bond cleavages and recyclization with formation of the pyrrol structures substituted with carboxylic groups. Both deprotonated molecules easily lose CO2 in ESI conditions.