In the study, we performed a global analysis of trends in body mass index and established that from 1975 to 2014 in we witnessed a globally unprecedented increase of BMI in both men and women, and thus increased health risks associated with overnutrition and physical inactivity. We have established that if post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. This article achieved exceptional attention, and was in 2016 positioned as 14th among the 100 most discussed papers in the world. At the same time it was the most read article in 2016 of any aothor, coming from the University of Ljubljana.
In the research we analyzed a four-decade trend of mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure. Both decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe.
We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The analysis revealed that the largest gains in stature have occured in the countries in which the living standards dramatically improved. There was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later.
This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. Group of international swimmers was allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. Results showed that traditional training high—living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers.
We measured six-minute walk distance in patients representative for low level of comorbidity and searched for potentially modifiable predictive factors of performance and dyspnea. Renal failure without the confounding effect of comorbidity is a significant negative predictor of performance at six-minute walk test and perceived level of dyspnea. Body fat mass and serum total iron binding capacity are the main potentially modifiable predictors of performance, total iron binding capacity being superior to C-reactive protein and albumin. Although hemoglobin is not associated with test performance, it negatively predicts perceived shortness of breath.
We investigated the influence that inguinal fat has on maximal quadriceps response to femoral nerve magnetic stimulation. The capacity of femoral nerve magnetic stimulation to deliver supramaximal stimulation is altered when fat thickness below the coil increases. Special caution should be taken by clinicians when overweight or obese subjects are tested using femoral nerve magnetic stimulation.
This study tried to assess the effect of the implementation of the PE curriculum by specialist PE teachers on children's physical development and physical fitness. 146 classes from 66 Slovenian primary schools were assigned to quasi-test (71) and quasi-control (75) groups. Data from the SLOFIT database was used to compare the differences in physical fitness and development between groups of children whose PE lessons were delivered by specialist PE teachers from the second grade onwards. Specialist PE teachers were more successful than generalist teachers in achieving greater improvement of children's physical fitness, but no differences were observed in physical development of quasi-test and quasi-control group.
The objective of the 12-year prospective cohort study was to examine the tracking of obesity from childhood to young adulthood in Slovenia. Overweight or obese Slovenian children showed to more likely become overweight or obese adolescents and young adults than reported in other similar European and American studies, which indicates the need for early prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity.
Impairment as well as functional importance of power in elderly have been often analyzed, however, not during open (OKC) and close (CKC) kinetic chain actions simultaneously. With ageing greater power reduction was observed in OKC actions than in CKC actions. It was concluded that everydays' activities promote CKC activities and therefore maintain CKC power also at higher age.
Objective methods were used to evaluate children's sleep and physical activity over several days in order to test the hypotheses that: (1) low average sleep duration and/or sleep efficiency are linked to a low amount of physical activity; and (2) a reduction in sleep quantity and/or sleep efficiency during the night is followed by a decrease in physical activity the following day. While average sleep duration and efficiency were unrelated to physical activity, the analysis revealed that an extra hour spent in bed during the night was followed by a 16-minute decrease in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. This was accompanied by a 4.5?kJ/kg and 5.9?kJ/kg lower total daily energy expenditure in boys and girls. This study found no evidence for a link between short sleep and low or reduced physical activity.