This multi-center study was conducted to objectively evaluate energy expenditure and physical activity patterns on school days and weekends in urban 11-year-olds. The sample consisted of 241 children from three cities: Zagreb, Ljubljana and Ann Arbor (USA). Energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed during two school days and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor. Differences between the cities were observed for all physical activity variables. The highest level of moderate to vigorous physical activity was noted in Ljubljana boys and the lowest in Zagreb girls. In Zagreb and Ljubljana, boys were more physically active than girls, while in Ann Arbor the opposite was observed. In contrast, no gender difference in sedentary behavior was observed in any of the cities. A decline in physical activity from school days to weekends was noted in all city groups in both genders. However, the magnitude of the reduction in daily energy expenditure differed between the cities, with the largest differences being observed in Ljubljana and the smallest in Ann Arbor. In all three city groups, the great majority of boys and girls achieved current recommendations of 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity either during school days or weekends.
The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. At Round 2, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 18% to 57% among boys and from 18% to 50% among girls; 6 − 31% of boys and 5 − 21% of girls were obese. Southern European countries had the highest overweight prevalence. The highest significant decrease in BMI-for-age Z-scores was found in countries with higher absolute BMI values and the highest significant increase in countries with lower BMI values. The highest significant decrease in overweight prevalence was observed in Italy, Portugal and Slovenia and the highest significant increase in Latvia and Norway. Changes in BMI and prevalence of overweight over a two-year period varied significantly among European countries and it may be that countries with higher prevalence of overweight in COSI Round 1 have implemented interventions to try to remedy this situation.
Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention and the article tried to assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores differences were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI Z-score was not observed. Some European countries have implemented more school policies that are supportive to a healthy nutrition environment than others. However, most countries with low school nutrition environment scores also host schools with supportive school environment policies, suggesting that a uniform school policy to tackle the “unhealthy” school nutrition environment has not been implemented at the same level throughout a country and may underline the need for harmonized school policies.
Impairment as well as functional importance of power in elderly have been often analyzed, however, not during open (OKC) and close (CKC) kinetic chain actions simultaneously. With ageing greater power reduction was observed in OKC actions than in CKC actions. It was concluded that everydays' activities promote CKC activities and therefore maintain CKC power also at higher age.
The aim of the study was to select the group of tests to measure efficiency of the eggbeater kicks to help coaches better evaluation of this technical element. From obtained results the following tests were recommended: jumps from the water from the basic position, swimming from water start on short distance (2 m), jumping height at squat jump, and force during tethered swimming with alternated and single eggbeater kick.