In the study, we performed a global analysis of trends in body mass index and established that from 1975 to 2014 in we witnessed a globally unprecedented increase of BMI in both men and women, and thus increased health risks associated with overnutrition and physical inactivity. We have established that if post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. This article achieved exceptional attention, and was in 2016 positioned as 14th among the 100 most discussed papers in the world. At the same time it was the most read article in 2016 of any aothor, coming from the University of Ljubljana.
In the research we analyzed a four-decade trend of mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure. Both decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe.
We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The analysis revealed that the largest gains in stature have occured in the countries in which the living standards dramatically improved. There was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later.
The study showed that a traditional training high—living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers.
We measured six-minute walk distance in patients representative for low level of comorbidity and searched for potentially modifiable predictive factors of performance and dyspnea. Renal failure without the confounding effect of comorbidity is a significant negative predictor of performance at six-minute walk test and perceived level of dyspnea. Body fat mass and serum total iron binding capacity are the main potentially modifiable predictors of performance, total iron binding capacity being superior to C-reactive protein and albumin. Although hemoglobin is not associated with test performance, it negatively predicts perceived shortness of breath.