This paper describes the validation of a new MIC plate for the detection of C. difficile susceptibility to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of C. difficile infections in veterinary and human medicine. A customized broth microdilution plate was designed to assess minimal inhibitory concentrations of seventeen antibiotics (Micronaut-S CD MIC plate) (Merlin Diagnostics GmbH, Germany). The microdilution plates were validated for quality, repeatability and reproducibility control. Quality control showed the method was reliable for all antibiotics tested, with the exception of erythromycin, tigecycline and linezolid. The concurrent testing of E-tests and Micronaut-S CD MIC plates revealed unexpected problems in regards to different E-tests manufacturers, which made the results unusable for a correlation assessment. Repeatability control showed good results for most antibiotics. A greater dilution range was noticed only with antibiotics amoxicillin, clindamycin, oxacillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Results for the reproducibility control highlighted the need of freshly prepared Wilkins Chalgren broth, extra space between plates and the use of perforated foils (Sensititre® TREK, England).
The paper describes susceptibility patterns, virulence gene profile, clonality and epidemiology of community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Slovenia. Among 151 isolates, mecA gene was detected in 150 isolates, while mecC gene only in 1 isolate. MRSA isolates were classified into 19 different clones. The most prevalent sequence types were ST5 (26.4%), ST45 (25.2%), ST22 (10.6%), ST398 (9.9%), ST8 (5.9%), ST7 (4.6%), ST1 (3.9%), ST152/377 (3.3%), ST228 (2.6%) and ST2883 (1.3%). ST6, ST9, ST30, ST72, ST88, ST111, ST130, ST225 and ST772 were identified sporadically. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in 13 (8.6%) isolates that belonged to ST5, ST7, ST8, ST22, ST72, ST88, ST 152/377 and ST772.
The paper describes prevalence, genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolates obtained from environmental samples (soil and puddles). We describe for the first time two phylogenetically divergent clades that are mainly associated with environmental isolates, but can include also isolates from humans.
The paper describes characterization and diversity of the strains included in the international collection of Clostridium difficile, isolated from different animal species. Large overlap of animal-associated C. difficile PCR ribotypes with human strains was found, which brings further concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of C. difficile.
This paper describes the first mecC positive MRSA isolate that was isolated from a patient hospitalized in the northeast region of Slovenia. Additional six mecC MRSA strains were found among a national collection of 395 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2013. MecC MRSA isolates belonged to spa types t843, t9397 and t10009, and multilocus sequence type ST130.