Iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) are used for environmental water remediation. The NPs, which persist in solution after the treatment may cause hazardous effects to the living organisms and environment. To evaluate the potential environmental threat, the time dependent size distribution of iron particles was investigated in different aqueous samples (MilliQ water, forest spring water, landfill leachate) after the FeNPs treatment. The data revealed that aggregation, settling and removal of FeNPs after the treatment of waters was related to the sample characteristics and the ways of NPs dispersion. The data revealed that when mixing was used for dispersion, FeNPs quickly settled, thus did not represent environmental nano threat. Dispersion with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) resulted in a slower settling of iron aggregates, while the remaining NPs represented a potential nano threat. Removal of metals strongly depended on the type of FeNPs, chemical speciation of elements and the sample matrix. If FeNPs are contaminated by a particular metal, this contaminant may be, during the NPs treatment, released into the water, which is being remediated. This work importantly contributes to the knowledge on conditions that ensure safe use of FeNPs used for nanoremediation of environmental waters, without causing hazardous effects to the environment and living organisms.
Acoustic cavitation is a known water treatment, whereas hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) has only recently been addressed. Firstly, a general overview of HC as water treatment is presented. In the second part we represent the outcomes of our work, where HC was assessed in terms of removal of selected pharmaceuticals, cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and viruses from water. We have shown that HC can manifest itself in various forms, each having its own distinctive mechanism. Since this was neglected in the past, it has led to poor performance of HC. We intend to show in our future work that a different type of HC (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of various pollutants. HC is not the method of choice for routine water cleaning at present. Regardless, our the recent results have shown its great potential as the optimization could lead to a low energy water treatment technique.
The present study reports the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), carboxy-cyclophosphamide (CPCOOH), keto-cyclophosphamide (ketoCP) and N-dechloroethyl-cyclophosphamide (NdCP). Only CPCOOH (EC50 = 17.1 mg L−1) was toxic towards cyanobacteria Synecococcus leopoliensis. The measured mixture toxicity was lower than the predicted one. The SOS/umuC assay revealed genotoxic activity of CP, CPCOOH and the mixture in the presence of metabolic activation. CPCOOH was genotoxic also in the absence of metabolic activation. This finding is important as CPCOOH can directly affect DNA of non-target organisms in the environment. The UV irradiation of samples containing CP and IF showed efficient degradation of both compounds and samples remained non-toxic towards S. leopoliensis. This is the first study describing the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of the investigated cytostatics and their mixture. The results indicate the importance of toxicological evaluation and future monitoring of also other metabolites/TPs as they may be more hazardous than parent compounds.
NEČEMER, Marijan, POTOČNIK, Doris, OGRINC, Nives. Discrimination between Slovenian cow, goat and sheep milk and cheese according to geographical origin using a combination of elemental content and stable isotope data. Journal of food composition and analysis, ISSN 0889-1575, 2016, vol. 52, str. 16-23, doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2016.07.002. [COBISS.SI-ID 29648423] BAT, Karmen, ELER, Klemen, MAZEJ, Darja, MOZETIČ VODOPIVEC, Branka, MULIČ, Ines, KUMP, Peter, OGRINC, Nives. Isotopic and elemental characterisation of Slovenian apple juice according to geographical origin: preliminary results. Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146. [Printed.], 2016, vol. 203, str. 86-94, ilustr.,[COBISS.SI-ID 4143099] Prispevki opisujejo uporabo stabilnih izotopov lahkih elementov pri določanju pristnosti in geografskega porekla živil v našem primeru bučnega olja, sadnih sokov in sirov. Na osnovi pridobljenih podatkov bo mogoče ustvariti model sledljivosti, ki se lahko uporabi za zaščito slovenskih živil s PDO označbo in za preverjanje pristnosti komercialnih izdelkov. Tovrstni sistem bo prispeval k zaščiti proizvajalcev visoko kakovostnih živil in potrošnika.
The work, which was published in the renowned magazine ES & T, we summarized the importance of research in the process of implementation of the Convention, which deals with mercury as a global pollutant. Likewise, we also published the scientific work supporting the program from the standpoint of the health effects of mercury mining in Idrija and population that consumes seafood: KOBAL, Alfred Bogomir, SNOJ TRATNIK, Janja, MAZEJ, et al. HORVAT, Milena. Exposure to mercury in susceptible population groups living in the former mercury mining town of Idrija, Slovenia. Environmental research, ISSN 0013-9351, [in press] 2016, 12 str., doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.06.037. [COBISS.SI-ID 29648167] PRPIĆ, Igor, MILARDOVIĆ, Ana, VLASIĆ-CICVARIĆ, Inge, SPIRIĆ, Zdravko, RADIĆ NIŠEVIĆ, Jelena, VUKELIĆ, Petar, SNOJ TRATNIK, Janja, MAZEJ, Darja, HORVAT, Milena. Prenatal exposure to low-level methylmercury alters the child's fine motor skills at the age of 18 months. Environmental research, ISSN 0013-9351, [iin press] 2016, 6 str., doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.011. [COBISS.SI-ID 29893159]