Adsorption and degradation processes of tributyltin (TBT) and trimethyltin (TMeT) in landfill leachate treated with iron nanoparticles (FeNPs): Fe0 (nZVI), FeO and Fe3O4 were investigated. FeNPs dispersed with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or by mixing were added to leachate samples (pH 8) and same experiments done in leachates in which citric acid (pH 3) was added. Size distribution of TBT and TMeT was determined by sequential filtration and their concentrations by GC-ICP-MS. Results revealed that TBT was present in colloidal fractions, while TMeT in solution. At pH 8 adsorption of TBT to FeNPs prevailed, while at pH 3, hydroxyl radicals degraded TBT. TBT was the most effectively removed (96%) when sequential treatment of leachate with nZVI (dispersed by mixing) was applied first at pH 8, followed by nZVI treatment at pH 3. Such treatment removed 40% of TMeT. It was proven that TMAH provoked methylation of tin, so mixing was recommended for dispersion of nZVI.
Due to the widespread use of platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapeutics, Pt metabolites that are excreted via kidney end-up in hospital or municipal wastewaters. Hence, speciation of Pt in environmental waters is becoming an issue of concern. A procedure for the separation of cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes by the use of zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) was developed and optimized. Quantification of the Pt species separated was performed by post column isotope dilution−inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) procedure. Low total Pt concentrations determined in Slovenian hospital wastewaters (0.35 ng/mL) enabled the speciation analysis only in spiked hospital wastewaters, demonstrating the presence of cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes monoaquacisplatin and diaquacisplatin. Analysis of environmental water samples, to which the relevant concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) or humic acids (HA) were added, and were spiked with cisplatin, revealed that about 75% of Pt species were adsorbed by SPM or HA.
Residues of anti-neoplastic drugs are emerging pollutants in aquatic environments, where missing chronic ecotoxicity data present a critical knowledge gap. 5-fluorouracil was investigated in chronic two-generation toxicity study on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and genotoxic effects were detected at low for environmental exposure relevant concentrations.
The relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and 41 elementary air circulation mechanisms (ECMs) determined by Dzerdzeevskii classification was studied by researchers from University of Ljubljana, Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Jožef Stefan Institute. We developed the first mathematical model based on the linear combination of monthly hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation and precipitation amount weighted average related to particular ECM. Application of the model was illustrated on the long term (1981 – 2010) precipitation isotope record from Ljubljana Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) station, Slovenia. We estimated average isotope values and their standard deviation for the precipitation at Ljubljana generated at particular ECMs. The model enables new insights into the understanding of spatial and temporal distribution of isotopes in precipitation, which is a basis for the understanding of terrestrial climate proxies based on the isotopic characteristics of the precipitation.
This demonstration HBM study presents the first steps, for Europe as a whole, to register internal chemical exposures at the individual level. A harmonized protocol to collect comparable HBM data all over Europe was developed. Mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites and cadmium in urine of 1844 children (5-11 years) and their mothers from 17 European countries were measured. Samples were collected over a 5 month period in 2011-2012 together with questionnaire data on personal characteristics, environment, and life style. The results show 1) differences in the biomarker concentration profiles by country residence, 2) personal habits and lifestyle are strong determinants of internal exposure and 3) most biomarker concentrations were below the health based guidance values. Feasibility of a European wide HBM framework to support the decision making process of environmental measures to protect public health was demonstrated. Key success factors were harmonized protocols and stringent quality control measures.