Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

MAPA: Multidisciplinary Analysis of the PrecArious work - legal, economic, social and health protection aspects

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
5.05.00  Social sciences  Law   

Code Science Field
S110  Social sciences  Juridical sciences 

Code Science Field
5.05  Social Sciences  Law 
labour market, precariousness, employment, false self-employer, decent work, flexible work, atypical work, digitalisation, social security, health
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (16)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  50773  Sara Bagari  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  75 
2.  12062  PhD Marjan Bilban  Medical sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  628 
3.  18940  PhD Polona Domadenik Muren  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  430 
4.  28766  PhD Valentina Franca  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  612 
5.  15102  PhD Barbara Kresal  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  471 
6.  16387  PhD Katarina Kresal Šoltes  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  212 
7.  18606  PhD Vesna Leskošek  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  963 
8.  36054  PhD Denis Marinšek  Social sciences  Researcher  2019 - 2020  63 
9.  37671  Primož Rataj  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  87 
10.  23031  PhD Tjaša Redek  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  721 
11.  22929  PhD Liljana Rihter  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  608 
12.  26034  PhD Darja Senčur Peček  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  525 
13.  19427  PhD Grega Strban  Social sciences  Head  2018 - 2020  791 
14.  50132  MSc Mirjam ten Veen    Technical associate  2018 - 2020 
15.  23042  PhD Luka Tičar  Social sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020  322 
16.  29872  Tadeja Žabkar Lebič    Technical associate  2019 - 2020 
Organisations (7)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0381  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine  Ljubljana  1627066  45,607 
2.  0508  Institute for Labour Law at Faculty of Law, Ljubljana  Ljubljana  5051487000  1,581 
3.  0583  University of Ljubljana - Faculty of law  Ljubljana  1627104  14,531 
4.  0584  University of Ljubljana, School of Economics and Business (SEB)  Ljubljana  1626922  41,223 
5.  0591  University of Ljubljana, Faculty for Social Work  Ljubljana  1627147  10,436 
6.  0592  University of Maribor, Faculty of Law  Maribor  5089638015  11,055 
7.  7097  University of Primorska, Faculty of management  Koper  1810014002  10,859 
The examination of precarious work is closely related to the issues of the atypical (non-standard) forms of work and their negative consequences for the functioning of the labour market, the individual and society. Atypical (non-standard) work consists of numerous diverse forms of work which differ in one or more features (regarding duration, working time, place, contracting parties, etc.) from the traditional model of the standard employment relationship (SER), which is entered into based on a contract of employment, stipulated between the employee and the employer with open-ended (permanent) and full-time arrangements. Though a significant majority of workers in Slovenia and EU still work under an SER, non-standard work is growing fast. Since the 1990s the EU has followed a dual approach of liberalisation/protection in its policy of encouraging diversity in employment contracting (for instance for part-time or fixed term employment or agency work); the policy presupposes, first, that alternatives to the SER are valid and legitimate, and second, that the SER is itself a valid form and merits some protection, even more, the SER is set up as the norm, or benchmark, against which other forms are to be compared when implementing the principle of equal treatment (Deakin Simon, 2016. New Forms of Employment: Implications for EU Law – The law as It Stands, Blanpain Roger & Hendrickx (ed.): New Forms of Employment in Europe. Kluwer Law International, p. 43-53). The precarious work has a negative connotation. Numerous Slovenian and foreign studies have warned against the negative consequences since the beginning of the implementation of the atypical forms of work. Kresal emphasis that so called flexible forms of employment put employees in a more precarious situation, with less favourable labour and social conditions and that it is the problem of a segmentation of the labour market, which creates the distinction between the so-called insider-workers and outsider-workers (Kresal B., 2011a). Kanjuo Mrčela stresses that ten year ago the analyses of the situation on the labour market notified the increasing flexibility of labour and employment and the need of flexicurity, but recent analyses suggest that changes in the last decade went in the opposite direction – fewer workers have perspective of flexicurity, while for most, and especially the youth working lives are characterized by an increasing precariousness (Kanjuo Mrčela, Ignjatovič, 2015.). Another important issue is to assess the atypical forms of work from the aspect of the effects they have on different categories of workers, especially the more vulnerable ones. Kresal stresses that solutions should encourage equal opportunities and equal treatment of employees, regardless of their personal circumstances, however, the data suggest that the ‘flexibly employed workers’ are predominantly those who belong to the vulnerable groups of population, which connects this issue to discrimination on the labour market. The project challenges the discussion that not all non-standard work is inherently precarious and that simply extending one or two features from standard work to precarious work is not a sufficient remedy for precarious, because precariousness is much more complex problem. The project MAPA is therefore focused on reducing the negative consequences of the precariousness and also the segmentation of the labour market, and on providing decent work for all workers. General objectives of the MAPA: - gaining comprehensive insight of the precariousness in Slovenia, through the exact findings of the extent, characteristics and the comparison with other EU member states, - developing measures against precariousness on the basis of the comprehensive multidisciplinary study. Specific objectives: - incentive for research and multidisciplinary approach in this area - greater awareness on decent work and the negative consequences of the precarious work among decisions-maker
Significance for science
Precarious work is the subject of numerous discussions in various disciplines. To date researchers approached this issue on an individual basis or through a prism of one or, at best, two disciplines. This implies that numerous opportunities to understand the emergence of precarious work remain unexhausted, and what is most concerning, no uniform responses to this issue have been produced to date. This type of project is more than essential, urgent and valuable for the development of science and the profession. A multidisciplinary approach will be used that includes the actual and legal status of precarious workers on the labour market, also tackling the social, health and economic dimension of this issue. A global comparison based on statistical data will serve as the basis for the drafting and publication of expert papers, not only domestic specialised journals, but on a broader scale.
Significance for the country
The project is extremely significant for the economy, as precarious work appears practically in all sectors. In terms of the economy as a whole, the results of the project will contribute to the raising of awareness about the issue of precarious work in its broadest sense, which covers both dubious practices in implementing atypical forms of employment and in the application of other forms of work that are used contrary to their purpose and objective. The results of the project will provide the corporate sector as a whole, individual sectors, social partners and also specific companies with an in-depth understanding of not only the magnitude of precarious work but also of its adverse effects at the social and individual levels.  The project’s findings will contribute to the proper and comprehensive understanding of precarious work, which will provide us with the opportunity for reflection, both from an employer’s and employee’s perspective. Solutions will be provided to alter the regulatory framework of the concept in question, thus eliminating several labour law and social law issues, including issues relating to the social, healthcare and economic sphere of individuals. The clarification of precarious work in Slovenia will be sought from all perspectives, thereby producing an assessment of the issue on both the national and international levels. All the above will provide suitable proposed solutions for a more inclusive labour market and for diminished segmentation on the market. The material aspect of social security and occupational health and the consequences brought about by a potential injury or illness suffered by precarious workers must not be overlooked. The proper regulation of this area could mitigate social risks for all who carry out work in precarious forms of employment. This type of multidisciplinary research study and its results would significantly contribute to the better understanding of the appearance, consequences and potential further development of precarious work.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2018, final report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2018, final report
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