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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Protection of bronze monuments in the changing environment

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
2.04.00  Engineering sciences and technologies  Materials science and technology   

Code Science Field
H314  Humanities  Preservation and restoration of art works 

Code Science Field
2.05  Engineering and Technology  Materials engineering 
Keywords
Corrosion and protection of bronze objects, development of ICT tools, sensors development, integration of society into the care for heritage
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (17)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  22315  PhD Tadeja Kosec  Chemistry  Researcher  2018 - 2021  338 
2.  50985  PhD Miklos Kresz  Computer science and informatics  Researcher  2018 - 2021  117 
3.  35055  Lea Legan  Chemistry  Researcher  2018 - 2021  165 
4.  08281  PhD Andraž Legat  Civil engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  488 
5.  37699  PhD Petra Močnik  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2019 - 2021  36 
6.  35834  PhD Klara Retko  Chemistry  Researcher  2018 - 2021  153 
7.  28079  PhD Polonca Ropret  Chemistry  Head  2018 - 2021  291 
8.  50366  PhD Anna Malgorzata Sandak  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  280 
9.  50461  PhD Jakub Michal Sandak  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  258 
10.  52406  PhD Erwin Andreas M Schau  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2020 - 2021  37 
11.  50984  PhD Vaclav Sebera  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  71 
12.  12521  PhD Andrijana Sever Škapin  Civil engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  430 
13.  33521  PhD Ana Slavec  Interdisciplinary research  Researcher  2018 - 2019  237 
14.  52517  MSc Vesna Starman  Educational studies  Researcher  2020 - 2021  23 
15.  27939  Luka Škrlep  Civil engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  131 
16.  32022  PhD Erika Švara Fabjan  Chemistry  Researcher  2020 - 2021  73 
17.  20335  PhD Bojan Zajec  Civil engineering  Researcher  2018 - 2021  184 
Organisations (3)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  2316  Institute for the protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia  Ljubljana  1423215  3,854 
2.  1502  Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute  Ljubljana  5866324000  10,366 
3.  3770  InnoRenew CoE Renewable Materials and Healthy Environments Research and Innovation Centre of Excellence  Izola  7233817000  2,811 
Abstract
Copper and bronze undergo spontaneous oxidation in humid air, but the aggressive environment (e.g. acid rain,..) the outdoor bronze monuments are exposed to, influences their further corrosion and degradation. In spite of the extensive corrosion studies of bronze and artist’s patina, only few direct correlations of environmental conditions, to which a work of art is exposed, to the corrosion development exist. Furthermore, this problem is exacerbated due to the rapid global environmental changes and pollution. In order to protect bronze cultural heritage objects only certain corrosion protection methods may be used, but the protection systems that were in the use till now are not always effective and could be environmentally questionable, and need to be adapted to the environmental conditions a work of art is exposed to. Furthermore, the increasing urbanisation, mass tourism, neglect or vandalism of the outdoor-exposed bronze objects, end the ever-changing means and ways of communication among people of different generations call also for modern social measures/actions to be developed to provide care for their physical component, and appreciation of cultural heritage monuments in general. For this project four case studies of bronze monuments are selected in urban (at traffic and non-traffic road), coastal and rural areas of Slovenia. The project will aim to: a) develop the appropriate monitoring system at each location; b) characterise the corrosion products at the selected case studies and eventual artists’ patinations; c) establish the direct correlations of environmental conditions a work of art is exposed to with the corrosion development; d) develop the tailored protection systems; e) develop ICT tools in order to engage the local interested public, tourists, school,… to send photos of damaged parts of selected monuments to a common server; f) image analysis and correlation/comparison with the scientific testing/research described above; g) develop an alert system in order to on time inform the stakeholders of the potential damage recorded by the public; h) special attention will be put to attract the public (e.g. school project, generally motivated citizens/tourists). The project aims to a holistic approach in the care for bronze cultural heritage objects. The progress beyond the state of the art will therefore bring original results in scientific as well as social aspects, such as advanced and effective monitoring system, new databases, correlations of corrosion development in the changing climate, effective and tailored protection systems for outdoor bronze objects, advanced ICT tools, and new social mechanisms in order to include society in the care of cultural heritage. Each of these results will impact the development of science. For example, new databases that will be generated within the project will further be useful in different scientific fields, such as Material science, Corrosion science, Conservation science, Heritage science, Analytical Chemistry, Environmental science, ICT science, etc. The new protective systems will greatly influence the development of restoration/conservation and preventive conservation scientific fields, as they will be tailored according to the composition of the objects, including the presence of patinas, as well as to their exposure in the specific polluted environment. The proposed tailored protection systems for outdoor bronze objects against environmental factors in different climatic conditions is not described in neither scientific nor technical literature, what increase the importance and the novelty of the results of the project. The results will be patentable and publishable in scientific high-impact journals. Furthermore, the new guidelines for the use of the developed protection coatings will influence conservation/restoration, conservation science and preventive conservation fields. All these will fundamentally influence the development of the Technical Art History fiel
Significance for science
It is expected that the project will bring the progress beyond the state of the art in different scientific fields: Advanced monitoring The monitoring will be based on advances in sensing supported by extensive experimental and computational data. The experimental data will be provided by weathering and chemical analyses, the computational data will be provided using finite element analyses that are verified experimentally. This will fundamentally improve quality of monitoring and will therefore essentially influence the development of Environmental science and provide results publishable in scientific high-impact journals New databases They will be generated in WP2, 3, 4, 5 and will contain spectroscopic and colorimetric data of exposed bronze models with or without the protection system, detailed pollution data and images of altered bronze surfaces recorded by smart phones. These databases will be deposited in an open access data depository where they will be further useful in different scientific fields, such as Material, Corrosion, Conservation, Heritage, Environmental, ICT Sciences, etc. Tailored protection systems for bronzes The new protective systems will greatly influence the development of restoration/conservation and preventive conservation, as they will be tailored according to the composition of the objects and their exposure in the specific polluted environment. Those kind of tailored protection systems are not described in neither scientific nor technical literature, what increase the importance and the novelty of the results, which will therefore be patentable and publishable in scientific high-impact journals. Advanced information and computer technologies The advancement will be in data collection, data processing and data analytics system. The integration of the up-to-date methodologies of artificial intelligence, multi-variate data analysis, numerical modelling, data engineering and data management will provide a modern framework of knowledge discovery in science. The key technology will be based on a new generation of knowledge base systems with a compound of numerical models and data driven analytical methods. The results will therefore be publishable in scientific high-impact journals Advancement in social science fields Studying the attitudes of local communities and tourists related to cultural heritage preservation will progress the knowledge in the fields of sociology of culture and also tourism studies. Examining the use of the mobile phone photography, social media and other uses of modern ICT in relation to visiting heritage sites and analysing the effectiveness of the developed social media strategy will contribute to the social informatics field Advancement in Art History field The gained knowledge on the composition of original, including artists’ patinations, of selected bronze objects and new guidelines for the use of the developed protection coatings will fundamentally influence the development of the Technical Art History
Significance for the country
It is expected that the project will bring the progress beyond the state of the art in different scientific fields: Advanced monitoring The monitoring will be based on advances in sensing supported by extensive experimental and computational data. The experimental data will be provided by weathering and chemical analyses, the computational data will be provided using finite element analyses that are verified experimentally. This will fundamentally improve quality of monitoring and will therefore essentially influence the development of Environmental science and provide results publishable in scientific high-impact journals New databases They will be generated in WP2, 3, 4, 5 and will contain spectroscopic and colorimetric data of exposed bronze models with or without the protection system, detailed pollution data and images of altered bronze surfaces recorded by smart phones. These databases will be deposited in an open access data depository where they will be further useful in different scientific fields, such as Material, Corrosion, Conservation, Heritage, Environmental, ICT Sciences, etc. Tailored protection systems for bronzes The new protective systems will greatly influence the development of restoration/conservation and preventive conservation, as they will be tailored according to the composition of the objects and their exposure in the specific polluted environment. Those kind of tailored protection systems are not described in neither scientific nor technical literature, what increase the importance and the novelty of the results, which will therefore be patentable and publishable in scientific high-impact journals. Advanced information and computer technologies The advancement will be in data collection, data processing and data analytics system. The integration of the up-to-date methodologies of artificial intelligence, multi-variate data analysis, numerical modelling, data engineering and data management will provide a modern framework of knowledge discovery in science. The key technology will be based on a new generation of knowledge base systems with a compound of numerical models and data driven analytical methods. The results will therefore be publishable in scientific high-impact journals Advancement in social science fields Studying the attitudes of local communities and tourists related to cultural heritage preservation will progress the knowledge in the fields of sociology of culture and also tourism studies. Examining the use of the mobile phone photography, social media and other uses of modern ICT in relation to visiting heritage sites and analysing the effectiveness of the developed social media strategy will contribute to the social informatics field Advancement in Art History field The gained knowledge on the composition of original, including artists’ patinations, of selected bronze objects and new guidelines for the use of the developed protection coatings will fundamentally influence the development of the Technical Art History
Most important scientific results Interim report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results
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