Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Permanent geodetic marks as a basis for the high-quality performance of the geodetic profession

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
2.17.00  Engineering sciences and technologies  Geodesy   

Code Science Field
P515  Natural sciences and mathematics  Geodesy 

Code Science Field
2.07  Engineering and Technology  Environmental engineering  
permanent geodetic marks, trigonometric points, benchmarks, provincial border signs, border signs, evaluation, archive data, digital collection
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (16)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  12247  PhD Tomaž Ambrožič  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  678 
2.  10700  MSc Vasja Bric  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  111 
3.  39786  Niko Fabiani  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  65 
4.  05674  PhD Dušan Kogoj  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  955 
5.  07531  PhD Božo Koler  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  502 
6.  23500  PhD Klemen Kozmus Trajkovski  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  156 
7.  10398  PhD Miran Kuhar  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  469 
8.  26122  PhD Aleš Marjetič  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  393 
9.  14796  MSc Katja Oven  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  174 
10.  19585  PhD Polona Pavlovčič Prešeren  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  323 
11.  15392  PhD Dušan Petrovič  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  597 
12.  05892  PhD Dalibor Radovan  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  543 
13.  51000  Klemen Ritlop  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  47 
14.  25481  PhD Oskar Sterle  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  181 
15.  10196  PhD Bojan Stopar  Geodesy  Researcher  2019 - 2021  833 
16.  23564  PhD Mihaela Triglav Čekada  Geodesy  Head  2019 - 2021  330 
Organisations (2)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0246  Geodetic Institute of Slovenia  Ljubljana  5051649000  1,906 
2.  0792  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering  Ljubljana  1626981  25,781 
Geodetic marks appear on the ground in various forms, such as columns, towers, border stones, benchmarks, individual markings on natural and built objects, or even as independent small-sized buildings. Regardless of the age, type and purpose of permanent geodetic marks, they in most cases materialize coordinate systems or land ownership relations in a certain area, which to a considerable extent still exist today, and thus have not only historical value. Permanent geodetic marks include: the fundamental benchmark in Ruše, the different row benchmarks for height, the geodetic poinst of the triangulation bases in Radovljica and Maribor, the landmarks of the old provincial borders of Austria-Hungary,triangulation points at the highest Slovenian peaks, old border signs that defined regional or state boundaries and which can still influence on the determination of state borders (especially with Croatia), different border-property points in the land cadastre (different forms of border signs: landmarks, variously marked carved signs in rocks or objects) and geodetic points with educational and tourist potential (e.g. GEOSS - Geometric Center of Slovenia in Slivna pri Vačah), geodetic points with sightseeing towers (e.g. Rasica), there are also stones, natural or concrete, larger or smaller, like trigonometric points of second or lower orders, gravimetric points, the absolute gravimetric points are particularly significant (Castle Socerb, Sevnica Castle, Kluze Fortress, Bogensperk Castle, Church of St. Areh) and others The permanent geodetic marks from the period of a classic geodetic survey can in certain cases be used in modern geodetic surveys. Geodesy is one of a few professions that can combine data obtained with current measuring tecqniques with data obtained in the past by different methods to achive more accurate results. Decisions made in the present can be more correct and easier, if we know the principles and practical functioning of geodetic science and the profession in the past. Due to the legal protection of real estate and the maintenance of the national coordinate system, the preservation of important old permanent geodetic marks in nature, together with data obtained in the past, is very important. It is also important to identify and evaluate permanent historical geodetic marks in the areas on the border with the Republic of Croatia for the purposes of professional decision-making in demarcation procedures. Last but not least, with good knowledge of these geodetic marks, we can participate in European initiatives to preserve the technical cultural heritage (e.g. in the area of the former Austria-Hungary), some geodetic marks could be included also in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The project will be divided into four working packages: Work Package 1: Methodological instructions for the inventory, evaluation and use of various permanent geodetic marks in contemporary times Work Package 2: Sources and literature overview on important permanent geodetic marks Work Package 3: Modeling digital collection of important permanent geodetic marks and their properties Work Package 4: Dissemination of project results The methodology design for inventorisation, evaluation and the use of various important permanent geodetic marks in contemporary times will be followed by a overview of sources and literature on important geodetic marks. In the overview of sources and literature also interviews with older surveyors will be conducted. Older surveyors who were included in setting up or maintaining important permanent geodetic marks during the classical geodetic survey times. The final material result of the project will be a conceptual model of a digital collection of important permanent geodetic marks in which the relevant features of these marks will be described. Methodological instructions will also be prepared to evaluate and use selected permanent geodetic marks in contemporary times, depending on the possibilitie
Significance for science
Permanent geodetic marks represent the basic foundation for the quality work of the geodetic profession. Basically, they represent the materialization of coordinate systems, both horizontal and height, as well as the materialization of land ownership relations in a certain area. Due to the maintenance of the national coordinate system, it is important to maintain permanent geodetic marks from the period of classical geodetic survey in nature and data about them obtained in the past, because they can be linked to the data obtained in the modern times. Permanent geodetic marksare therefore important for maintaining the materialization of old coordinate systems and for preserving the material basis of classical geodetic methods of measurements. At the time of the establishment of a triangulation network in the area of today's Slovenia, from the middle of the 18th century to the end of the 19th century, about 15,000 trigonometric points of the 1st to 4th order were erected. The new trigonometric network of the 1st order, also called the astronomical-geodetic network, was re-established in the 60s of the 20th century. During this period, 35 trigonometric points of the 1st order were constructed, marked with five to twenty meters high masonry columns. Most of these points were build on the spots of the former Austrian trigonometric points. Trigonometric points of lower orders were marked with smaller concrete square pilars. The modern national horizontal coordinate system of Slovenia is realized with the EUREF-Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commission for EUROPE and the continuously functioning GNSS-stations in the SIGNAL network (Slovenia-Geodesy-Navigation-Location). In the future, this role of the reference framework will be taken over by the national combined geodetic network, also called the 0th order geodetic network, which consists of ten GNSS reference stations in six locations. The coordinates of EUREF-points in the territory of Slovenia were determined within the EUREF measuring campaign in the 1990s fort he first time, and represent the first realization of the ETRS89 (European Terrestrial Reference System 1989) in Slovenia (code D96). At that time, all existing trigonometric points of the 1st order were also included in the geodetic measurements. The coordinates of the permanently functioning SIGNAL national GNSS network stations were set in the ETRS89 coordinate system in the mini EUREF campaign of 2007. The coordinates of all three networks (trigonometric points of 1st order, SIGNAL, combined geodetic network) were first determined together at the same time by the EUREF campaign Slovenia 2016. It enabled a new realisation of ETRS89 in Slovenia named D17. In addition to the points that in the past defined the horizontal system, at the same time a network of leveling points was established, the so-called benchmarks, which define the national height system. At the time of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century throughout Austria, the altitudes of 16,652 precision benchmarks were determined, which were attached to the starting benchmark Santorio pier in Trieste. At that time, the first extensive measurements of leveling networks were carried out in Europe. In Yugoslavia, a number of leveling measurements were carried out afterwards, which were related to different starting benchmarks: from Bakar, Malgaj and finally to Koper. Only the last one is in Slovenia. A quality national geodetic reference system is important for everyone involved in spatial data and georeferencing. Geodesy as a science and profession, as well as the state geodetic service, have the task of providing adequate spatial state coordinate system, both horizontal and height, which changes over time, in such a way that the user will not be dealt with additional problems in his daily operational work. The basic mission of geodesy as a science and state geodetic service is to provide a quality basis for the georeferencing of all types of
Significance for the country
The state spatial coordinate system, as part of the geodetic reference system, provides the conditions for uniquely determining and expressing the position of objects and phenomena with spatial coordinates in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia and is in accordance with the European Spatial Reference System (ESRS) European Space System. Thus, it allows numerous industries and entities unique geolocation of objects and phenomena in the space. Both components of the spatial coordinate system (horizontal and vertical) are established with national geodetic points whose history of creation and maintenance of their materialization in nature as permanent geodetic signs is presented in Chapter 21.1. »The significance of the project for the development of science and the profession«, and with the state network of permanent stations using global navigation satellite systems. The latter is the SIGNAL network, which represents the national network of 16 permanent GNSS-stations, which are evenly distributed throughout the country. It is the basis of the state geoinformation infrastructure and represents the framework of the Slovenian national coordinate system. Knowing the history of permanent geodetic marks allows us to compare the data collected at different time periods, and therefore recorded in the different spatial coordinate systems used at that time. Good knowledge of the materialization of spatial coordinate systems, which were valid in different time periods, enables high-quality long-term spatial analysis. A modernly designed coordinate system enables also international data exchange among economic operators, while at the same time it has positive financial, temporal, organizational and technological effects on the economy. Especially during the period of the introduction of modern satellite technology to determine the position of objects and phenomena in space, the indirect impact of the permanent geodetic signs of national geodetic points in many branches of the economy is of utmost importance. Proper and accurate geolocation of objects and phenomena is important in all four sectors of the economy. The primary sector, such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry, the secondary sector, such as industry, construction, energy, tertiary sector of service activities, as in trade, tourism, transport, road, shipping, air transport and navigation, and a quarterly sector, such as public administration are inevitably connected with the space and uniform geolocation of their respective buildings, land and activities carried out in the area. Just as all economic activities are closely interconnected and interdependent as well as permanent geodetic signs that either define the materialization of spatial coordinate systems, land ownership relations or mark the course of state borders over time, directly or indirectly influence the carrying out of economic activities in space. And they are important not only in the territory of our country, but also on the border zone with Italy, Austria and Croatia. As mentioned above, in addition to the extremely important role in the establishment (materialization) of the Slovenian national spatial coordinate system in physical space at various time periods, permanent geodetic marks have an important role in land ownership relations, which are important in all sectors of economy. They have a decisive role in the field of real estate management (land and buildings) and their legal protection, as well as in determining the territorial area of the country. Changing the state borders, from the Habsburg monarchy to the independent Republic of Slovenia, the provincial and municipal borders, which were marked with different border stones, also changed. Finally, the state border determines the boundary of the territorial jurisdiction of a state. In addition, the boundaries of land cadastral parcels, which were marked with different types of milestones in different periods, also changed over time.
Most important scientific results
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2019, 2020
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