Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

The Rapallo Border: A Quarter-Century of Existence and a Century of Heritage and Memory

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
6.01.00  Humanities  Historiography   

Code Science Field
6.01  Humanities  History and Archaeology 
Rapallo Border, Rupnik Line, Alpine Wall, border studies, cultural heritage, multidisciplinary approach, education, memorial landscapes, fortifications
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Data for the last 5 years (citations for the last 10 years) on September 23, 2023; A3 for period 2017-2021
Data for ARIS tenders ( 04.04.2019 – Programme tender, archive )
Database Linked records Citations Pure citations Average pure citations
WoS  163  1,303  1,097  6.73 
Scopus  342  2,421  1,843  5.39 
Researchers (19)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  33083  PhD Kornelija Ajlec  Humanities  Researcher  2023  356 
2.  08682  PhD Bojan Balkovec  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  651 
3.  30791  PhD Rok Ciglič  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  403 
4.  13183  PhD Alenka Fikfak  Social sciences  Researcher  2021 - 2023  657 
5.  50826  PhD Božidar Jožef Flajšman  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  524 
6.  23948  PhD Primož Gašperič  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  182 
7.  35035  PhD Matjaž Geršič  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  229 
8.  38907  PhD Janez Peter Grom  Social sciences  Researcher  2021 - 2023  139 
9.  13179  PhD Mauro Hrvatin  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  360 
10.  22605  PhD Darja Kerec  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  272 
11.  21464  PhD Blaž Komac  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  619 
12.  53515  Kristijan Lavtižar  Social sciences  Junior researcher  2021 - 2023  36 
13.  52012  PhD Erik Logar  Humanities  Junior researcher  2021 - 2022  67 
14.  31243  PhD Peter Mikša  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  633 
15.  08294  PhD Drago Perko  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  1,034 
16.  11484  PhD Božo Repe  Humanities  Head  2021 - 2023  2,453 
17.  39166  PhD Maja Vehar  Humanities  Researcher  2022 - 2023  138 
18.  33837  Manca Volk Bahun  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  310 
19.  22245  PhD Matija Zorn  Humanities  Researcher  2021 - 2023  1,199 
Organisations (4)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0581  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts  Ljubljana  1627058  96,436 
2.  0588  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education  Ljubljana  1627082  31,905 
3.  0618  Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts  Ljubljana  5105498000  61,076 
4.  0791  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture  Ljubljana  1626949  8,556 
On 12 November 1920, the Kingdom of SCS and the Kingdom of Italy signed a treaty in the Italian town of Rapallo which demarcated the border between these two countries after World War I – the so-called Rapallo Border. The 289 km long borderline, along which extensive defensive infrastructure was built, radically sliced into the Slovene ethnic area. The border left a permanent mark on the landscape and on the identity of the population. The aftermath or its “imprint” can still be detected today. As regards duration, the Rapallo Border was a short-lived political border that: (a) owing to the nature of the environment through which it ran; (b) the countries involved; (c) the dominant social climate and the administrative-political, military, economic and cultural practices forced a strict demarcation and division. It demarcated a territory which, prior to 1918, had belonged to a unitary state (Austria-Hungary), thus dividing the territory of Slovenes that had been ethnically homogeneous for centuries. Despite agreeing to the course of the border, both sides began to fortify it in preparation of (anticipated) future border conflicts. The first to begin fortification were the Italians in the 1920s. Extensive fortification works began on the Italian side in 1931 when they began building a number of underground and aboveground fortifications and barracks connected into the Alpine Wall. On the Yugoslav side, a similar initiative emerged in the mid-1920s but no major fortification works were carried out until 1935 when they began building the so-called Rupnik Line. The area where Yugoslavia fortified the border with Italy was officially called the Western Front but is now mostly known in Slovenia as the Rupnik Line. It was named after the contemporary Yugoslav general of Slovene descent, Leon Rupnik. In 1937, Rupnik became in charge of fortification works at the Border Fortification Headquarters. Most of the Rupnik Line ran along the Rapallo Border and a smaller section along the Austrian border. When Austria was annexed to Germany in 1938, the northern border of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia also became problematic. That is why Yugoslavia protected it with Sector 6 of the Rupnik Line. In the Koroška region, the fortification line ran from Črna na Koroškem to Dravograd, and continued eastward all the way to Ptuj. The new border inevitably resulted in many traumas and severed the traditional patterns of migrations, agriculture, commerce and the like. The local population continued to feel hurt and has passed this on to younger generations and to the collective memory. Conflicts that have not been resolved trigger “memory wars”, which prevent peaceful coexistence for decades or even centuries after the original events. The first step towards reconciliation is to confront the past, which cannot be done if the facts are unknown. This will be the first research study to examine the facts behind the planning, designing and establishing of the new Rapallo Border, the effects its existence had on the daily lives of the border population, the methods of protecting and defending the border, etc. The inter-war Rapallo Border divided Slovenes for “only” a quarter-century but its effects are still visible today, 100 years after its establishment. Within the context of the “legacy” of the Rapallo Border we can point out four aspects, which we intend to study: -Rapallo Border as tangible cultural heritage; -Rapallo Border as the maker of regional affiliation; -Effects of the Rapallo Border in various contemporary administrative divisions; -Psychosocial effects of the Rapallo Border on the ethnic and ideological beliefs of the population.
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