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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Nanostructured Materials

Periods
Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
2.04.00  Engineering sciences and technologies  Materials science and technology   
1.02.00  Natural sciences and mathematics  Physics   
1.04.00  Natural sciences and mathematics  Chemistry   
1.08.00  Natural sciences and mathematics  Control and care of the environment   

Code Science Field
T150  Technological sciences  Material technology 
Keywords
nanostructured materials, functionally graded materials, electronic ceramics, magnetic materials, heterostructures, nanotechnologies, spintronics, coloidal processing, hydrogen storage, solid state chemistry and physics, structural deffects, grain growth, anisotropy, coercivity, electrical and magnetic properties, electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, ab initio modelling
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (22)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  06627  PhD Slavko Bernik  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  629 
2.  03937  PhD Miran Čeh  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  655 
3.  19029  PhD Nina Daneu  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  428 
4.  02556  PhD Goran Dražić  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  1,046 
5.  28476  PhD Nataša Drnovšek  Materials science and technology  Junior researcher  2007 - 2008  87 
6.  05216  Medeja Gec    Technical associate  2004 - 2008  42 
7.  25652  PhD Tea Kapun  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Junior researcher  2005 - 2008  119 
8.  04355  PhD Spomenka Kobe  Materials science and technology  Head  2004 - 2008  767 
9.  26027  PhD Andraž Kocjan  Materials science and technology  Junior researcher  2005 - 2008  74 
10.  15654  PhD Matej Andrej Komelj  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  176 
11.  26461  PhD Katja Konig  Materials science and technology  Junior researcher  2006 - 2008  75 
12.  18594  PhD Paul John Mc Guiness  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  338 
13.  04292  PhD Saša Novak Krmpotič  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  669 
14.  24982  PhD Benjamin Podmiljšak  Materials science and technology  Technical associate  2005 - 2008  96 
15.  29043  PhD Katarina Rade  Chemistry  Junior researcher  2008  34 
16.  10083  PhD Aleksander Rečnik  Chemistry  Researcher  2004 - 2008  651 
17.  10570  PhD Boris Saje  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004  89 
18.  15597  PhD Zoran Samardžija  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2007 - 2008  583 
19.  21554  PhD Vesna Šrot  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2006  60 
20.  19030  PhD Sašo Šturm  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  661 
21.  28491  PhD Kristina Žagar Soderžnik  Materials science and technology  Junior researcher  2007 - 2008  211 
22.  18824  PhD Kristina Žužek  Materials science and technology  Researcher  2004 - 2008  365 
Organisations (1)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0106  Jožef Stefan Institute  Ljubljana  5051606000  91,921 
Abstract
The proposed research program is devoted to the development and investigation of modern materials that are applicable in nanotechnology. It is based on a bottom-up approach and focuses on the tailoring of materials from their basic building blocks at the atomic level. The technological potentials of nanotechnology originate in the complexity of the materials involved due to the complicated chemical structure, the reduced dimensionality (thin films, nanowires) and a limited number of building atoms (nanoclusters) Hence, a successful transition to the arena of nanotechnology requires strong and mutually interactive efforts in materials science, chemistry and physics. The activities within the proposed program include experimental and theoretical investigations of the structure, analyses of the chemical composition on the atomic level, measurements and calculations of physical properties as well as the preparation of nanostructured materials. The main focus of the investigations will be the so-called nanostructural elements, namely the structural and chemical elements on the nanolevel that characterize a material - interfaces, planar faults, nanocrystallites, amorphous layers, segregates, etc. The program's aims will be the relations between the nanostructural elements, the material's microstructure and the resulting physical properties. The emphases will be on the following materials: rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallic magnetic materials, natural and synthetic minerals (amorphous and crystalline nanopowders), ceramic sensors, materials for extreme conditions, SiC, Si3N4, varistors, (nano-amorphous layers in polycrystalline ceramics), magnetic thin films, hetero-interfaces for spintronics, ZnO, perovskites and functionally gradient materials. The final aim is to develop the ability to design metallic and ceramic materials with the best properties, either by improving already-investigated or by developing completely new materials.
Significance for science
The results of the program “Nanostructured materials” in the period 2004-2008 contributed to the basic knowledge of thermodynamic and kinetic processes during the nucleation and growth of crystals on the atomic-scale. These atomic-scale studies of crystal defects provided us with a valuable insight into the basic building principles of crystalline materials; moreover, it contributed to our understanding of problems in materials science such as the abnormal growth of crystals. Nanocrystals are highly versatile materials, because their physico-chemical properties can be finely tuned by controlling their size, shape, and composition. Nanocrystals also can be organized into complex, controllable geometries over large areas using bottom-up self-assembly approaches. Such assemblies are extremely interesting in fundamental research, since they present a model by which the chemical and physical interactions of nanocrystals can be studied. The growth mechanism of the nanostructures and films were studied using PLD, to search for correlations with the final physical properties. As chemical low-cost methods we used the ELD and EPD processes, which are particularly advantageous in their abilities to tailor the composition and properties of materials. Knowledge about the process itself provides a beneficial tool to further optimize the properties and to further the output of metallic, intermetallic and ceramic nanostructures. We contributed to the scientific knowledge in the field of high permanent magnets based on rare-earths-transition metals intermetallic alloys in the form of powders or films. Based on detailed microstructure study using TEM and electron diffraction we proposed the mechanism of anisotropy in HDDR processed magnets; we have followed disproportionation in HDDR processing and nitriding of Sm-Fe alloys in-situ by using an upgraded vibrating sample magnetometer. The Co-Pt thin films were synthesized using the electro-deposition method and with the systematic study the highest coercivity observed so far in non-exchange-spring electro-deposited Co-Pt films was achieved. In the field of magnetocaloric materials we were the first to explain the different influence of small amounts of Fe on hysteresis losses, if it changes the composition in Gd5Si2Ge2 on behalf of Si or Ge. In the system Ti-Zr-Ni we discovered a new phase rich with i-phase for the hydrogen storage. For the first time we have identified the mechanism, which can be used to control the growth of ZnO grains. At the atomic scale we have shown that inversion boundaries (IBs) are growth faults that can be used to tailor the microstructure development in ZnO ceramics. This mechanism can be employed to tailor the breakdown voltage and tailor the electrical properties of ZnO-based ceramics. One of the most prominent accomplishments for promotion of science and research within the last four years was issuing of the scientific monograph »Mineral localities of Slovenia«, which is a result of multidisciplinary studies and will serve as a basic reference material for university studies. The development of advanced high resolution TEM/HAADF-STEM techniques allows a quantitative interpretation of stuctural defects at the atomic scale. It has been demonstrated that the bonding and electronic states of a single atom can be detected by using a spatially resolved EELS near-edge fine structures (ELNES). This is a significant result for nanomaterials characterization, in which the results can be directly correlated with the final physical properties of the investigated material and significantly contribute to materials science. To use the synergy between experiment and theory was a very good way to tune the technologically important properties of existing materials, and to tailor some of the extraordinary properties of completely novel materials. Computational, existing computational methods were improved and some new approaches were developed.
Significance for the country
Since 2004 the programme group has been involved in the European fusion programme and has achieved considerable success. Thus, during this period of initial construction of the experimental reactor ITER, we are actively involved in one of the world’s largest projects (the second largest after the international space station). The investigations of SiC/SiC composites for applications in the fusion reactor DEMO place us among the few research groups dealing with the development of these kinds of materials and have strengthened our role in the European fusion programme EURATOM. Within the project Biograd (5th FP-Growth) we developed and fabricated a new grade of ceramic ball-heads for hip joints. With its functionally graded composition, i.e., a bioactive and wear-resistant surface layer and a tough, zirconia-rich core, the new ball-heads have exhibited much improved properties over conventional ball-heads. The study was recently selected to appear at a CORDIS technology marketplace and was reported as an EU feature article at the “Technology marketplace”. Direct contribution to the Slovenian economy goes through many years partnership with the industrial partners. High sensitive powders based on intermetallic alloys of rare-earth-transition metals were developed in the frame of NATO SfP project and with the final result in a mass production of injection moulded Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets for the industrial partner Magneti Ljubljana d.d. The development of basic powders for sintered or bonded magnets included the corrosion protection of sensitive powders. Coating by a mono molecular layer of organic film enabled the protected of sensitive powders against corrosion and they can be handled in the environmental atmosphere. The coated powders enabled technology for increased fluidization of sensitive powders, and improved flowabillity represented a valuable contribution in improving the lost productivity and poor processing efficiency in the production line. The continuation of a successful laboratory research was to design and construct an industrial magnetic water treatment device (MWTD). The amount of precipitated CaCO3 particles in the form of calcite in magnetically treated water is between 18 and 21 wt. %. The rest is vaterite, which, like aragonite, is a metastable phase of calcium carbonate at ambient conditions. As it is less stable than either calcite or aragonite, vaterite has a higher solubility than either of these phases. The result of combined basic and applied research showed that an alternative route to chemical methods of treating hard water in the cooling system of Termoelektrarna-Toplarna for preventing scaling can be successfully implemented on industrial level and enable an ecological technology. Through many years we have a close collaboration with Slovenian company VARSI, which is currently producing various new types of varistors developed with our cooperation in accordance with the demands of world market or improvement of their existing production lines. Varistors are also the active part of the surge protection device (SPD) that removes the harmful current-voltage transient peaks caused by lightning form the equipment under such protection. The national research programme includes the education and training of young researchers with the up-to-date knowledge and also in this way contributes to the broadening of proficiency in the field of natural science and contributes to the technological and applied knowledge in Slovenia. The continuity of the programme activities in the direction of education and knowledge transfer is shown in the following data: Since 1998, the educational program involved 10 young researchers who successfully finished their degrees in M.Sc and PhD. Two of them were awarded with Humboldt fellowship (Matej Komelj and Nina Daneu), and one them (Nina Daneu) with the “Jožef Stefan” Golden medal for the soundest PhD thesis.
Most important scientific results Final report, complete report on dLib.si
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Final report, complete report on dLib.si
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