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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

ETHNIC BELONGING AND FERTILITY IN SLOVENIA: THE FACTOR OF THIRD AND HIGHER BIRTH ORDER IN THE REPRODUCTION OF RESIDENT POPULATION

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
6.12.02  Humanities  Geography  Social geography 

Code Science Field
S230  Social sciences  Social geography 
S250  Social sciences  Demography 
Keywords
Ethnicity, migration, fertility, fecundity, fertility behaviour, birth order, family, family size, parents, children, immigration, immigrants, ethnic structure, national question, Slovenes, Croats, Bosniaks, islam, muslims, fecundity, marriage, Slovenija, Central Europe, Southeastern Europe
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (1)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  20195  PhD Damir Josipovič  Geography  Head  2007 - 2008  329 
Organisations (1)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0507  Institute for Ethnic Studies  Ljubljana  5051517000  4,561 
Abstract
Demographic situation in Slovenia is, commonly and by expert views, critical. Until the beginning of 1980’s, the problem of fertility decrease in Slovenia wasn’t even detected. Not until 1981, when total fertility in known demographic history of Slovenia dropped below 2.1 child per woman for the first time, the researchers undertook the task of closely examining the causes which led to this. Similarly as elsewhere in Europe, the values of total fertility rate steeply decreased and reached the lowest point at 1,2 child per woman in fertile period. Thus the reproduction rate of Slovenia is as low as 57 %. The most important role in this decrease has the lack of third-order and higher-order births. For demographic processes in Slovenia and Europe, some historical ruptures are significant: demographic transition, which ended in 1960’s in Europe; after the short, the second demographic transition emerged already in 1970’s. Besides, there are another two historical ruptures significant for Slovenia: immigration from other parts of former Yugoslavia; the independence of Slovenia in 1991. Historically, the increase of migration currents and fertility decrease in Slovenia coincided, which led the laic and expert judgement to ascribe the preservation of fertility level above the simple reproduction in the 1970’s, to immigration. The first basic hypothesis of the study is, that the population which immigrated to Slovenia from 1950’s onward, didn’t increase the fertility, it decreased it in whole and sped up the beginning of second demographic transition. The second basic assumption will empower the starting-point, upon which the immigrant population, contrary to common point of view of public and some experts has smaller number of third and fourth orders of birth, and on account of that is more demographically threatened than Slovene ethnic majority. Central hypothesis of study deals with already mentioned absence of third and higher orders of births, which is key for the process of decrease of fertility. The study will base on in depth analysis of existent statistical, inquiry and other material, and the central additional corpus data will be gathered with in-depth field interviews. The uniqueness of the research is not only in the ascertainment of those factors that today influence on the parents’ decision to have the third and additional child, but also in possibilities of forming instruments of demographic and family politics, which would aimed at accentuation of possibilities and strengthening of such social milieu, which would realize wishes for the third child.
Significance for science
Being interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary based, the research will contribute to new cognitions in the field of population studies and those of population components: i.e. the role of ethnicity and migration as well as the spatial and regional aspects along with regional differences in specific fertility behaviour. Besides, the research will contribute to all the disciplines, which are dealing with the population: demography, geography, sociology, economy, anthropology, medical science. For the first time one of the researches is proposing a conceptualization of the analysis of the key target group – families with three or more children – which decisively influence the level of fertility and the reproduction of population. Accordingly, the role of migration and consequently ethnicity will be rethought through the impact on fertility level.
Significance for the country
Beside direct effects, the research will contribute to more appropriate evaluation of population or its individual characteristics. Contemporary heavily curtailed reproduction of Slovenia’s population sways the proportions between basic age-groups (young, active, old population). Thus the pressure towards the active contingent is growing. The research aims at more balanced evaluation of the population as the human capital. Recently, the reproduction of population was overlooked in a Strategy of Economic Development of Slovenia. The research results will contribute in a direction of building a more consistent population policy to achieve better population reproduction rate. Consequently, such development will be reflected in numerous fields: from improved social cohesiveness, preserved countryside settlement, to preserved overall cultural heritage, which is linked with the survival of Slovenes as a nation.
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