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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

RADICALIZATION AND COMPREHENSIVE COUNTERMEASURES IN SLOVENIA

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
5.06.04  Social sciences  Political science  Defence science 

Code Science Field
S175  Social sciences  Polemology 

Code Science Field
5.06  Social Sciences  Political science 
Keywords
Radicalization, violence, violent extremism, terrorism, de-radicalization, measures against radicalization
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (8)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  53560  PhD Klemen Kocjančič  Political science  Researcher  2019 - 2020 
2.  29896  MSc Anja Kolak  Political science  Technical associate  2018 - 2020 
3.  17048  PhD Branko Lobnikar  Administrative and organisational sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020 
4.  33280  PhD Maja Modic  Criminology and social work  Researcher  2018 - 2020 
5.  18351  PhD Iztok Prezelj  Political science  Head  2018 - 2020 
6.  38302  PhD Kaja Prislan Mihelič  Administrative and organisational sciences  Researcher  2018 - 2020 
7.  17049  PhD Andrej Sotlar  Political science  Researcher  2018 - 2020 
8.  29415  PhD Janja Vuga  Political science  Researcher  2018 - 2020 
Organisations (2)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0582  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences  Ljubljana  1626957  183 
2.  2131  University of Maribor Faculty of Criminal Justice  Ljubljana  5089638047 
Abstract
Violent extremism, radicalization and terrorism have become an increasing problem in contemporary Europe. Trends on the use of terrorist violence show increasing brutality, primacy of civilian targets and victims, connections with military presence in crisis areas, connections with migrations and inter-cultural and inter-religious relations, and broadening of the spectrum of methods (such as, use of suicide terrorists in Europe, simultaneous attacks, use of vans, attacks on concerts, restaurants, media houses…). Radicalization is a complex process of adopting radical views by individuals and social groups about political or social problems, which can eventually lead to the use of extreme violence (terrorism). European countries and relevant international organizations (UN, EU, OSCE and NATO) identified radicalization as a threat to national and international security. Presently, these countries are shaping or reshaping their policies and programs for monitoring radicalization and de-radicalization. Slovenia has relatively few experience with terrorism on its territory, yet it has had witnessed some forms of radicalization, but at a much lower level than many of comparable European countries (e.g. problem of foreign fighters). The purpose of this project is to help Slovenia develop its policy and program of multi-dimensional and multi-institutional systematic monitoring of radicalization processes that might lead into use of violence and help creating a networked governmental and non-governmental structures for de-radicalization of vulnerable groups and individuals. This project is focusing on all forms of potential radicalization, such as Islamic, right wing, left wing, secessionist and single issue. The project will achieve the following goals: Creation of conceptual and terminological ground for studying and monitoring radicalization and measures against it. Terminological clarity needs to be established in Slovenia before the official concept and policy of monitoring radicalization and de-radicalization are created. It is of great importance to clarify the relations among violent extremism, radicalization, social polarization and terrorism. Analysis of violent radicalization processes in Slovenia, which includes the following sub-goals: Analysis and assessment of selected foreign approaches to monitoring of radicalization. Identification and short description of cases of violent radicalization in Slovenia based on media records and report of the parliamentary Investigation commission on radicalization in Slovenia (where two members of the project group cooperated as expert witnesses). Identification of social groups vulnerable to violent radicalization (for example youth groups, religious groups, ethnic groups, immigrants, second generation of immigrants, asylum seekers, sports fan groups, etc.). Workshops with focus groups: holders of security information on the existing radicalization in Slovenia (police, civilian and defence intelligence services), advisers of the Employment Service of Slovenia, representatives of the Sector for Execution of Penal Sanctions in RS, social advisers in public schools, head of the former parliamentary Investigation commission on radicalization in Slovenia, etc. Quantitative analysis: opinion polls on susceptibility to radicalization on the sample of students of the University of Maribor and University of Ljubljana. Creation of spectrum of indicators for early detection of violent radicalization with the following sub-goals: Definition of early warning process/system in the field of radicalization. Analysis of selected foreign concepts and practical cases of indicator-based radicalization monitoring. Special attention will be drawn also to indicators related to the “lone wolf” cases. Creation of the MODEL of mezzo- and micro-level indicators for identification of violent radicalization, including description of indicators and their mutual relations, creation of the graphical image of t
Significance for science
No comprehensive research project on all forms of radicalization and de-radicalization was ever financed in Slovenia. It is of high importance for Slovenian science and profession that two Slovenian key research institutions on the use of violence joined to implement this project: University of Ljubljana – Faculty of Social Sciences and University of Maribor – Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security. The former institution brings in this small consortium the knowledge on social processes in relation to politics and the use of violence to achieve political goals and the latter brings the knowledge on processes related to organized crime in Slovenia and broader. Merger of this research potential can be considered as an exemplary example of inter-institutional cooperation between the University of Ljubljana and Maribor. This merger also brings higher impact and legitimacy of the project results in Slovenian security practice. Project results will bridge research gaps in the Slovenian scientific literature in the field of radicalization and de-radicalization. Project will create first systematic scientific publications in this field (next to some existing diploma and master theses in both universities and next to some existing publications on terrorism and Slovenia). This project will multi-dimensionally contribute to the development of Slovenian profession in the field of radicalization and de-radicalization. We explain this below. Each work package will create a lot of new knowledge. Project group will be connected to several processes in practice and will distribute this knowledge to relevant experts. We are specifically planning to transfer knowledge in the following areas: The national RAN platform (Radicalization Awareness Network) exists in Slovenia with many actors from the field of radicalization monitoring and de-radicalization. This platform has been much less active than similar platforms in other EU member states. Key research members from this project will transfer results to this platform in terms of concretization of its goals and modus operandi. Implementation of this project will raise awareness among the actors about this topic and consequently stimulate their participation in the network. A Slovenian draft Resolution on the National Program for Crime Prevention 2018-2022 (2017) mentions the problem that Slovenian public (media, professionals and entire society) is insufficiently aware of risks associated with violent radicalization, extreme violence and terrorism, that national security system is underdeveloped in this direction and that related endeavours will have to be strengthened. Proposed project with its results will contribute to increased awareness of all publics of the problem of violent extremism, violent radicalization and terrorism. This is vital for further development of related measures in this field. The above mentioned draft resolution mentions the EU four-pillar model of counter-terrorism and that the focus of countering terrorism has moved to the first pillar of prevention. This “PREVENT” pillar from the EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy (2005) deals with preventing the root causes of terrorism and early identification of people turning to terrorism through radicalization and recruitment. Project results will represent scientific and professional direction for national and local institutions, and their monitoring and de-radicalization activities. Goal of RS is to create its first National counter-terrorism strategy in 2019. Acquired knowledge in this project will represent a direct background in writing parts of this strategy. If Slovenia decides to renew the existing National Security Strategy from 2010, parts of this project will also be usable for parts of this strategy (especially where the existing strategy is currently weak – radicalization and de-radicalization processes). RS is leading the first pillar of the Western Balkan Counter-Terrorism Initiative (WBCTi) within the Integrative In
Significance for the country
This project will not have any direct impacts on Slovenian economy. However, implementation of its results in practice will have important indirect impact on Slovenian economy. Project results will contribute to stability in our country and of our economy in the increasingly risky security environment. Public order, peace and security positively influence transactions of capital and domestic and foreign investments. Economy can successfully develop only in a stable environment. Development paradigm is positively connected with the security paradigm: development can materialize only in a relatively safe and stable environment. This thesis has been confirmed also by the draft Development Strategy of Slovenia until 2030. Applied project will, with implementation of its results, enable Slovenian society to maintain stable and quality economy and life in Slovenia. Slovenian society is to a large extent depending on smooth operation of national critical infrastructures. Slovenian government has defined national critical infrastructure in 2010 as those capacities and services relevant for the whole state and their malfunction or destruction would have serious consequences for national security, economy, key societal functions, health, social welfare, etc. In 2014, Slovenia defined objects of critical infrastructure in the following sectors: Electrical energy, ICT, Drinking water, Food production and distribution, Health, Oil, Rail transport, Air transport, Port transport, Gas energy, Financial transactions, Cash supply, State budget, Environment. Assessments of past terrorist attacks and motives in Europe have shown that critical infrastructure is among potential targets of modern terrorists. Our project will contribute to the chances of early identification of violent motives in direction of terrorist attacks on Slovenian critical infrastructure. The above stated infrastructure can normally operate only state of peace, security and stability. Slovenian society and state can achieve own economic goals only in such environment.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2018, 2019, final report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2018, 2019, final report
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