Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Particle detectors at future generation colliders

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
1.02.06  Natural sciences and mathematics  Physics  Experimental physics of elementary particles 

Code Science Field
P211  Natural sciences and mathematics  High energy interactions, cosmic rays 

Code Science Field
1.03  Natural Sciences  Physical sciences 
Experimental particle physics, super Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS detector upgrade, Super KEKB collider, detector Belle II, tracking detectors, semiconductor detectors, pCVD diamond detectors, micro-strip detectors, pixel detectors, radiation damage, particle identification, ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, photon detectors
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (14)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  09081  PhD Vladimir Cindro  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  1,571 
2.  18277  PhD Andrej Gorišek  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  1,332 
3.  30632  MSc Borut Grošičar  Computer science and informatics  Researcher  2011 - 2012  17 
4.  11598  PhD Samo Korpar  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  819 
5.  15642  PhD Gregor Kramberger  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  1,485 
6.  08725  PhD Peter Križan  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  1,004 
7.  28481  PhD Boštjan Maček  Physics  Researcher  2011 - 2012  954 
8.  12313  PhD Igor Mandić  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  1,468 
9.  04763  PhD Marko Mikuž  Physics  Head  2010 - 2013  1,617 
10.  16354  PhD Rok Pestotnik  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  705 
11.  21552  PhD Andrej Studen  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  131 
12.  28721  MSc Aleš Svetek  Physics  Researcher  2011 - 2013  22 
13.  11985  PhD Marko Zavrtanik  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  1,024 
14.  12750  PhD Dejan Žontar  Physics  Researcher  2010 - 2013  351 
Organisations (3)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0106  Jožef Stefan Institute  Ljubljana  5051606000  90,600 
2.  0794  University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Maribor  5089638012  13,104 
3.  1554  University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics  Ljubljana  1627007  34,059 
The spearhead of research in particle physics in the coming decade will be directed towards two frontiers: the energy frontier at the Large Hadron Collider and the precision frontier at the B-factory. The ultimate goal of these complementary approaches is to establish signals of physics beyond the Standard model. The common aspect of the two colliders is the increased luminosity, be it the tenfold increase of proton-proton collisions in the upgraded LHC (sLHC) or the 80-fold increase of electron-positron collisions in Super-KEKB. The increased particle rates pose requirements that cannot be coped with by a substantial part of the current detector systems. The main burden of the sLHC is the tenfold increase in particle rates. This results in increased detector occupancy and subsequent radiation damage, especially in the innermost tracking detectors that will have to be replaced. Equivalently, the time between interactions at Super-KEKB gets reduced beyond capability of the installed Belle detector, so essentially a general upgrade to Belle II is under way. The proposed project is aimed to provide support to both detector upgrades in two aspects: the tracker of ATLAS and the Cherenkov detector of Belle II. The short-term goal in the ATLAS upgrade is the sensor choice for the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade to be installed end 2014 to compensate for the reduced efficiency of the pixel detector. The long-term is the participation in the construction of the silicon strip tracker to cover about 200 m2 of the outer tracker layer for the sLHC upgrade around 2018. In the IBL sensor choice we are proponents of the pCVD diamond option. Should a competing silicon sensor (3D, planar) be chosen, we will participate in the IBL module evaluation and further develop the diamond option for the innermost layer(s) of the upgraded pixel detector. For the strip part of the detector upgrade the silicon sensor is uncontested, so research will be directed into verification of the module and integration concepts with the aim to optimize towards a balanced detector with adequate performance and affordable cost. The research will be carried out in the scope of the ATLAS IBL project and two ATLAS R&D upgrade projects on diamond vertex detector and planar silicon strip detectors. Generic part of the research will be done in the framework of CERN RD-42 (diamond detectors) and RD-50 (radiation hard silicon) collaborations. Within the proposed project, we plan to develop two new methods for the identification of charged particles for the Belle II spectrometer. Both methods are based on the detection of Cherenkov photons. The first one employs a novel type of ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with a focusing aerogel radiator. The second method combines the measurement of coordinates of the Cherenkov photon impact point on the exit plane from a quartz radiator with a very precise measurement of the time of arrival. In the development of the two methods the main challenge are position sensitive sensors for single photons; the sensors have to operate reliably over extended periods of time in a high magnetic field (1.5 T) at a high hit density and in the presence of a sizeable neutron background. The high hit rates and the need for a precise measurement of time of arrival require a tuning of the parameters of the read-out electronics, which has been developed specifically for this purpose. With a realistic computer simulation of the detector response, we will optimize the configuration of the two detectors. Within the project, we will design, construct and test prototypes of both types of detectors. In the final stages of the project, individual components of the final version of the two detector systems will be tested before installation
Significance for science
Research by the experiments, supported in their upgrade plans by the current project, represents a challenging task at the very frontier of contemporary scientific endeavour, utilizing vast human and financial resources and stretching or even extending existing technologies to render the experiments possible. The experiments have both been heavily scrutinized and finally approved by research committees, composed of leading experts from the field and beyond. They represent a joint effort of the global scientific community, and are constantly monitored by scientists as well as by the authorities that are funding them. Their task is to deepen our insight into constituents of matter and the forces acting between them. In this quest accelerators of highest energies or with special properties are used, to probe high energy densities as they existed a glimpse after the Big Bang that created the Universe. These upgraded experiments will have, each in their own, complimentary way, a good chance of finding signatures and exploring physics beyond the Standard model, be it the predicted and long awaited supersymmety or some more exotic realization of physics at a larger energy scale. The detector project is heavily interlinked with the CERN RD-42 and RD-50 collaborations, where progress and achievements are regularly controlled by the LHCC committee. Upgrade projects of the experiments are subject to both internal scrutiny as well as control of the respective funding agencies. The results of the proposed project bring new knowledge to detector physics and novel methods of particle detection. But most importantly, the witnessed progress in detectors will enable the targeted experiments to function properly at the respective upgraded colliders, discover signatures of New Physics and evaluate its properties. If existing, the New Physics processes would cause a large change in understanding of the structure of the world we live in. Considering an example of the supersymmetric extensions of the SM, based on the string theories, one can draw similarities in the impact that possible experimental evidence for this models would have to the one of the relativistic theory. As the latter changed the reasoning about the world by introducing a time dimension as an equivalent to the three spatial dimensions, also the supersymmetric theories would introduce ten spatial dimensions instead of the common three (additional dimensions would not be infinite as is the case with the familiar ones but rather shrunk to sizes many orders of magnitude smaller than the size of the hadrons). While the HL-LHC collider could enable experimental evidence for the existence of new particles (or refine their properties, if discovered at LHC) the precision measurements to be performed with the Belle II detector will differentiate among these models and by that enable determination of the so far unknown particle properties.
Significance for the country
Although the reported project is of pure basic research, it could provoke a substantial direct impact on the economy. The capital investment in the upgrade of the ATLAS tracking detector upgrade for HL-LHC amounts to 130 million CHF, excluding salaries of the collaborating researchers. Most of this investment will be spent on industrial orders. Here also the Slovenian high-tech industry could profit directly, especially if it gets involved through this project already in the prototyping phase. At the same time the newly acquired technologies can open up new business opportunities, and the supply to a CERN experiment represents an excellent reference in the high-tech market. The detectors, developed in this project, can be applied to several fields outside their original scope. Position sensitive silicon detectors promise novel approaches in PET and SPECT imaging, diamond detectors can be applied for in-vivo dosimetry and internal nuclear power plant monitoring, where high temperatures prevent functioning of other detector types. Cherenkov detectors with aerogel radiators can be used for monitoring of radioactive 90Sr in the environment. Both silicon detectors, as well as novel photo-detectors coupled to scintillators are viable candidates for dual modality PET/MRI imaging. Participation of Slovenian science in big collaborative international projects, exploring the frontiers of science, is of vital importance for the development of Slovenia. Carrying out research under equal terms with their colleagues from all over the world enables Slovenia and its researchers to: - participate in top research projects in one of the most propulsive fields of science, - publish in the most renowned scientific journals and take part in top-class international conferences, - ease formation of young researchers in international collaboration and competition with their fellow scientists from all around the world, - transfer research knowledge and experience into education at university and post-graduate level, - access and provide hands-on experience with the ultimate technology in the fields of detectors, electronics and computing, - transfer the applied technologies to Slovenia, - apply know-how to other fields of science and technology, - provoke participation of Slovenian industry in development, production and supply of high-tech products. The access to technology programmes at CERN as well as tendering for high-tech orders for the accelerator programme will experience a boost with the pending application of Slovenia to become a CERN member state. Already as the Candidate for Accession, Slovenia will enjoy full membership rights on these topics. Exposure to top-level technology, many times even in the phase of its development are crucial in the formation of young researchers with a high innovation potential, as well as for senior scientists to keep up with the development of the technology and transfer this knowledge to their younger colleagues and students. The contacts established in collaborations often lead to participation in technology projects beyond the scope of the original scientific goal.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2010, 2011, 2012, final report, complete report on dLib.si
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2010, 2011, 2012, final report, complete report on dLib.si
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