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Projects / Programmes source: ARRS

Rational use of hardwoods with a focus on beech wood

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
4.01.02  Biotechnical sciences  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Wood technology 

Code Science Field
B430  Biomedical sciences  Sylviculture, forestry, forestry technology 

Code Science Field
2.05  Engineering and Technology  Materials engineering 
Keywords
Forest-wood chain, forest management, timber harvesting, deciduous trees, beech, wood quality, ice-storm damage, wood processing, technology of primary processing, wood products, added value, marketing of wood assortments, wood supply, growth characteristics, properties of hardwoods, new technologies and products, new jobs, employment
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (15)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publications
1.  02937  PhD Katarina Čufar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Principal Researcher  2014 - 2017  936 
2.  05732  PhD Željko Gorišek  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  450 
3.  10340  PhD Dominika Gornik Bučar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  228 
4.  22609  PhD Jožica Gričar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  499 
5.  19106  PhD Miha Humar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  1,196 
6.  24295  PhD Matej Jošt  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2015 - 2017  83 
7.  16198  PhD Jože Kropivšek  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  276 
8.  11595  PhD Tomislav Levanič  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  596 
9.  11954  PhD Jurij Marenče  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  121 
10.  24676  PhD Maks Merela  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  520 
11.  13400  PhD Leon Oblak  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  447 
12.  05248  PhD Franc Pohleven  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  1,191 
13.  18149  PhD Aleš Straže  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  317 
14.  13057  MSc Bogdan Šega  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2015 - 2017  197 
15.  06345  PhD Janja Zule  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  275 
Organisations (3)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publications
1.  0219  Pulp and Paper Institute  Ljubljana  5051681  1,573 
2.  0404  Slovenian Forestry Institute  Ljubljana  5051673000  11,761 
3.  0481  University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty  Ljubljana  1626914  64,117 
Abstract
Beech (Fagus sylvatica) is our most important wood species and has the largest share in the growing stock of Slovenia. Its proportion is expected to increase also in the future. In this regard, special attention should be paid to management of beech forests in order to achieve better gain and higher quality of beech wood. Beech is therefore a key tree species when selecting and optimizing technology of hardwood processing. Beech wood has a medium to high density and good mechanical properties, allowing manifold use of wood for a wide range of products. Among the disadvantages of beech wood are its low resistance against biological deterioration and high hygroscopic shrinkage and swelling, occurrence of red heart, tension wood and inherent growth stresses. We need to know better the wood structure, properties and causes of major wood defects to apply appropriate silvicultural practice. This should avoid tree wounding and aim to contribute to improved wood quality. Beech wood offers numerous possibilities for production of various products, based on quality and availability of wood. Appropriate technologies are needed to produce products with high added value. Assessment of wood quality in the forest stands, and using beech and other hardwoods for products with high added value are the aims of the forest-wood profession for a long time. For this purpose, we need data on wood quality in the forest and during various stages of processing (i.e. in trees, logs, sawn wood). Events like ice storms are a part of a life cycle of forests. They cause major economic damage that has to be properly assessed and remediated. Potential availability of wood in terms of its quantity and quality is crucial to improve forest-wood chain in Slovenia. Wood-working industry is crucial for proper wood conversion and use. In the last decades it is facing a constant decline. Also the number of employees has been reduced. The branch also copes with low added value of its products. Investment in new technologies mainly did not occur in the last decades. This is particularly true for the primary processing of hardwoods. In this context th traditional industry generally does not have modern technology for adequate processing and conversion of hardwoods. Due to current situation we cannot expect that the companies in crisis would invest in development. Therefore we need to search for innovative solutions, like integrating research institutions (which are “producing” knowledge) with companies and policy makers. This would contribute to development of new technologies and products. It would enable rapid transfer of knowledge into practice. Knowing how to optimally use beech wood can be a good starting point for optimal treatment of other hardwoods. They are less frequent and their share in the growing stock of Slovenia is smaller, but they are very important due to specific characteristics of their wood. When we speak about wood properties we usually think of mature trunk wood. However, this only represents a small proportion of the total tree biomass. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the possibility of using bark, knots, branches, damaged wood etc. These are generally considered as a waste. After felling the trees these biomass remains in the forests or ends on landfills or is in best case used as an energy source. Slovenian has a strategy to increase the use of wood in the future. However this increase cannot be based on traditional furniture and plywood industries. Consumption of beech could only be increased by developing new innovative products, for which we need to develop appropriate technologies. For the improvement and rational use of hardwoods, especially beech, we need to invent new processes. Fore this we need to improve cooperation within the entire forest - wood chain, and cooperation of forest – wood sector with other disciplines in order to develop new processing for better exploitation and innovative use of wood as well as to produce
Significance for science
Ker je med najpomembnejšimi cilji gospodarjenja z gozdovi pridelava kakovostne hlodovine, se je treba zavedati, da je kakovost lesa v veliki meri odvisna od rastnih razmer drevesa. Raziskav, ki bi celovito proučevale vplive normalnih okoljskih dejavnikov in vse pogostejših ujm na dolgoročno rast in razvoj dreves s poudarkom na lastnostih (kakovosti) lesa, tudi v svetovnem merilu še vedno primanjkuje.   Rezultati raziskave bodo dopolnili spoznanja o: - vplivu različnih rastnih značilnosti na kakovost lesa listavcev, s poudarkom na bukovini, na različnih rastiščih v Sloveniji; - vplivu ekstremnih vremenskih dogodkov (npr. žledolom) na kakovost lesa; - možnostih boljše izrabe bukovine in drugih listavcev za izdelke z visoko dodano vrednostjo; - možnostih boljše izrabe biomase za inovativne izdelke; - povezanosti med gozdno gojitvenimi ukrepi in rabo lesa v specifičnih razmerah v Sloveniji; - nujnem povezovanju gojenja gozdov, tehnologij izkoriščanja gozda in tehnologij predelave in rabe lesa; - vzdrževanju produktivnosti gozdnih sestojev in odpornosti proti stresnim dejavnikov; - razvoju in uveljavljanju novih poslovnih modelov; - pospeševanju mrežne organiziranosti pri oblikovanju raziskovalnih/razvojnih centrov; - izboljšanju trženja proizvodov iz lesa in lesne biomase z visoko dodano vrednostjo (kot so: plastične mase iz lesa, kompozitni materiali, elektronika, kozmetika, farmacija, prehrana, gradbeništvo in papirna industrija); - izboljšanje kompetenc/znanj zaposlenih - učinku predlaganih ukrepov na širše gospodarsko okolje (odpadki, emisije CO2, izkoriščanje lokalnih danosti, zaposlovanje ipd.).   Vključevanje raziskovalcev s področja lesarstva, gozdarstva in papirništva ter tesno sodelovanje Zavodom za gozdove Slovenije bo omogočilo hiter prenos znanja v prakso.   Pri delu na projektu bo velik poudarek na interdisciplinarnem povezovanju in prenosu znanj v prakso ter na povezovanju znanosti in stroke na področju gozdarstva, lesarstva in papirništva ter drugih disciplin. Sodelovanje bo vključevalo izmenjavo informacij in delo na skupnih delavnicah ter preko sprotnega poročanja o aktivnostih in rezultatih projekta v obliki kratkih novičk. Z vključevanjem končnih uporabnikov in ciljnih skupin v vse sklope projekta bomo dosegli sprotno preverjanje in večjo uporabnost izsledkov projekta.
Significance for the country
- Temeljni neposredni prispevek projekta bo boljše poznavanje in vrednotenje količine in kakovosti lesa listavcev s poudarkom na bukovini. To bo v pomoč gozdnemu sektorju, lastnikom gozdov, lesno predelovalnim obratom. Pridobljeno znanje bo pripomoglo k prehodu v zeleno gospodarstvo v Sloveniji. - Pregled obstoječih tehnologij bo omogočil kritično oceno, ali razpolagamo z ustreznimi tehnologijami, potrebnimi za optimalno predelavo evidentirane lesne surovine listavcev. Primeri dobrih in slabih praks bodo osnova za pripravo predlogov možnih izboljšav, kar bo pripomoglo k lažjemu uvajanju novih tehnologij, modelov, organizacijskih oblik, razvoju inovativnih rab in izdelkov, ki bi lahko vodili v nova delovna mesta in večjo zaposlenost. - Usmerjeno delo v bukovih gozdovih, ki v Sloveniji zavzemajo skoraj 90% gozdne površine, bo poleg izboljšanja kakovosti lesa in optimalne rabe lesa glede na kakovost, prispevalo k izboljšanju povezave gozdno lesne verige ter prispevalo k oživitvi področja v določenih območjih. -Pomemben prispevek projekta vodil tudi v izboljšanje upravljanja z gozdovi. - Nenazadnje bodo rezultati lahko osnova za dopolnjevanje zakonskih in podzakonskih aktov, ki bodo pripomogli k ukrepom za pospeševanje rabe lesa, predelave lesa v izdelke z višjo dodano vrednostno, boljše izrabe biomase.   Rezultati bodo koristni za: - javno gozdarsko službo za pomoč pri smernicah, strategijah in možnostih gospodarjenja z gozdovi. - pznavanje realnih podatkov bo pripomoglo k boljšim strateškim odločitvam na sektorskem regionalnem ter državnem nivoju; - razumevanje učinkov ekstremnih vremenskih razmer (žledolom) na gozdne ekosisteme in produkcijo in optimizacijo sanacije posledic ujm; - uvajanje novih metod in tehnik, znanja ter sodelovanja različnih raziskovalnih inštitucij, tudi zunaj področja lesarstvo, gozdarstvo in - prenos znanja v prakso.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2015, 2016, final report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2015, 2016, final report
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