Projects / Programmes source: ARRS

Ideological/political and cultural pluralism and monism in Slovenia in the 20th century

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
6.01.00  Humanities  Historiography   

Code Science Field
H271  Humanities  Political history 
First Yugoslavia, ideological/political pluralism, cultural creation, Catholicism, Liberalism, Communism, second world war, revolution, counter-revolution, second Yugoslavia, ideological/political monism, cultural policy, Communist Party of Slovenia, League of Communists of Slovenia, Socialist Alliance of Working People, socialist self-management, federalism, People's Republic of Slovenia, Free Territory of Trieste, Republic of Slovenia.
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (14)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publications
1.  06406  PhD Zdenko Čepič  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  437 
2.  08410  PhD Vida Deželak-Barič  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  263 
3.  08192  PhD Ervin Dolenc  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  313 
4.  00840  PhD Aleš Gabrič  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  830 
5.  22284  PhD Jure Gašparič  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  318 
6.  08394  PhD Bojan Godeša  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  447 
7.  09653  PhD Damijan Guštin  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  646 
8.  13394  Nataša Kandus  Historiography  Technician  2004 - 2008  38 
9.  28399  PhD Eva Mally  Historiography  Junior researcher  2007 - 2008  10 
10.  04075  PhD Boris Mlakar  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  583 
11.  29514  PhD Željko Oset  Historiography  Junior researcher  2008  232 
12.  08411  PhD Jurij Perovšek  Historiography  Principal Researcher  2004 - 2008  826 
13.  15635  PhD Mateja Režek  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2006  175 
14.  12928  PhD Nevenka Troha  Historiography  Researcher  2004 - 2008  377 
Organisations (1)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publications
1.  0501  Institute for Contemporary History  Ljubljana  5057116000  6,035 
In the recent history of Slovenia, typified in the 20th century by a series of upheavals in ideological, political and cultural development and by military action on Slovene soil, the question of the plurality or otherwise of mental, ideological and sociopolitical life is particularly important. The research programme investigates this issue in order to offer a complex analysis of Slovene cultural creation in the first Yugoslavia (1918-1941) and the political development and ideological and sociopolitical characteristics of the Slovene Catholic, Liberal and revolutionary Communist camps during this period. It also focuses on the period of the second world war in Slovenia (1941-1945) and is oriented towards an analysis of relations between the then key ideological/political factors - the occupying forces, the Catholic and Liberal camps, the Communists, the Liberation Front and the Slovene League. It also deals with the problem of the revolutionary affirmation of the Communists in this period and covers relations between military formations (the occupying forces, resistance forces and counter-resistance military formations fighting on the side of the occupying forces) and the civilian population in Slovenia in the years 1941-1945. Special attention is paid to the period of the second Yugoslavia (1945-1991). First to the Communists' acquisition of a monopoly position in Slovene society after the war, and then to an analysis of key postwar social, economic and political processes and the role of Slovene politicians in them; the research also includes political life in the Free Territory of Trieste between 1947 and 1954 and deals with the issue of Slovene cultural policy in the last decade of existence of the second Yugoslavia and directly after the formation of the independent Republic of Slovenia. It investigates Slovene ideological/political and cultural diversity and the dilemmas and upheavals of the 20th century and will shed light on various events in this period whose consequences continue to be felt today.
Significance for science
In view of the situation in research which, before the programme was implemented, defined the level of historiographic treatment, understanding and assessment of the development of Slovenes during the 20th century, it can be observed that substantial deepening and broadening in the cognitive scope of the history of Slovenes in said period has been achieved on the basis of this programme. Political and cultural development until and during WW I as well as the transition of Slovenes from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy into the newly-established State of SHS and then into the Kingdom of SHS in 1918 (or 1919 in the case of Prekmurje region) were studied in view of the new research findings. The same goes for other fundamental periods of development in the 20th century history of Slovenes – the structure of Slovenian conceptual-political environment and relations emerging in the first Yugoslav state (1918–1941), the political status and conceptual development occurring in Slovenes who lived outside the Yugoslav state (Italy, Austria and Hungary) and those living in emigration were also treated. Furthermore, the period of Second World War in Slovenia (1941-1945) was analysed in detail. The study included every stage of development and multilevelness of processes in events taking place in that historical period. The study was based on the analysis of the entire conceptual-political spectrum and revealed all features of the revolutionary and counter-revolutionary conflict emerging in Slovenia during WW II. Alongside, the consequences war inflicted upon people were also presented. The first comprehensive and extensive study of the monistic period after the World War II was also analysed. All stages of development in the single-party system imposed by the Communist Party were analysed as well as the process of democratisation and Slovenian independence reached at the end of the 1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis also included the political and conceptual status of Slovenes who lived abroad (political emigration). Besides the main substantive framework of this research, separate studies of conceptual character and the policy Liberal and Catholic circles followed in the first Yugoslavia were also conducted, as well as studies in the policy followed by the Communist Party of Slovenia and the implementation of its monopolistic position held in the resistance movement during WW II, the prosecution of resistance against the fascist totalitarianism in WW II, views relating to the Slovenian national problem emerging within the Slovenian wartime environment, the Slovenian and Yugoslav policy implemented in the decade following the dispute with Informbiro (1948-1958), and the ideological characteristics of the primary, secondary and high education after 1945. The implementation of the research programme enabled a complex and, in view of important new findings, also well-founded historiographic knowledge on the issue of ideological and political character of the Slovene society and the individual in view of contemporary Slovenian history through study and assessments of different competitive conceptual-political systems designed to regulate social issues, which confronted one another in the 20th century Slovenia. Beside its direct influence on historiography, which has, based on the implementation of the above-stated programme, clearly deepened its research findings, the implementation of this programme represents a strong contribution for a broader scientific environment. This namely means that other fields of science dealing with the issues of democracy and its opposing political forms and, within this framework, also with the standing problem of (non-)implementing the freedom of an individual as well as the entire nation, can also make use of the results acquired through this research.
Significance for the country
In the historiography, wider humanistic science and the social public, a series of emphasised reflections and debates on the causes and fatal consequences of Slovenian conceptual and political differences in the 20th century have emerged over the last years. In this context, the above-mentioned problem is often viewed one-sidedly, only from the aspect of events taking place during WWII and immediately after it. Similarly, although to a lesser extent, this is also true of the period during the second Yugoslav state, for which there is generally only one basic characteristic being pointed out, and that is a monistic conceptual and political system established and maintained by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Slovenia) after 1945. Besides casting a large scale light on the above-mentioned events as well as their causes and consequences, the implementation of this research programme has founded a complex historiographic aspect of all vital conceptual, cultural and political processes and their protagonists in the 20th century Slovenia, which was full of historical milestones. Different historical positions of Slovenes during the Austrian period, the first Yugoslavia, WWII, the second Yugoslavia, and the time of democratic awakening and national state emancipation occurring at the end of 1980s and beginning of 1990s as well as the turn of the 21st century were analysed in detail. This way, the national historical memory is enabled to freely assess and evaluate the Slovenian courses of development and its characteristics from the last century, which is considered to be the most intense period of contemporary history. The assertion claiming that contemporary history was inadequately written and that, in Slovenia, there has yet been no proper historical analysis of currents in conceptual flows as well as political and military actions can no longer stand any critical assessment. With this, the possibility of interpretative option, which, in the light of yet unperformed research of Slovene social and political environment, has long been twisting the understanding of different historical processes and individual facts, is now surpassed. In respect of this, the fact that every historical period is now analysed by the true significance and meaning it bears for Slovenian historical experience is of key importance. This way, a balanced as well as ideologically and politically unburdened relationship towards the past is ensured, and that is exactly what has long been emerging as an urgent requirement for the Slovenian state and nation. This will, through scientific and applicative results, substantially contribute to the Slovenian inner-national and democratic attitude – to its worldly, cultural and political reciprocity, which is based on autonomous knowledge and recognition of nation’s historical and existential tests and its current existential position. An objective assessment developed on the basis of sound historiographic analysis of historical development in Slovenes of the 20th century carries an undisputable meaning also in the international community. It relates to the question of democratic credibility, which can, by any nation, be persuasively grounded on a civilised and mature viewing of its own past in which all aspects are being objectively evaluated. A consistent explanation of conceptual, cultural and political methods and presentations that have tailored the national history in the last century have been presented, and therefore they promote Slovenia in the international environment as a national and state entity with a clear notion of its contemporary historical experience. In the international circles, this fact establishes Slovenia as a community which is ready to embrace the future developmental challenges on conceptual, political, cultural and anthropological-spiritual level.
Most important scientific results Final report, complete report on dLib.si
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Final report, complete report on dLib.si
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