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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Control of apple proliferation disease in the mother-tree plantations

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
4.03.05  Biotechnical sciences  Plant production  Phytomedicine 

Code Science Field
B006  Biomedical sciences  Agronomics 

Code Science Field
4.01  Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences  Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 
Keywords
apple proliferation, bionomy, Cacopsylla melanoneura, Cacopsylla picta, Candidatus Phytoplasma mali, control measures
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (16)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  10256  MSc Barbara Ambrožič Turk  Plant production  Researcher  2014 - 2017  150 
2.  28296  Brigita Bračko  Plant production  Researcher  2014 - 2017  13 
3.  08280  PhD Marina Dermastia  Biology  Head  2014 - 2017  872 
4.  37631  Biserka Donik Purgaj  Plant production  Technical associate  2014 - 2017  135 
5.  25523  PhD Polona Kogovšek  Biology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  216 
6.  13492  PhD Mario Lešnik  Plant production  Researcher  2014 - 2017  596 
7.  18344  Lidija Matičič    Technical associate  2014 - 2017  42 
8.  23610  PhD Nataša Mehle  Biotechnology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  542 
9.  24505  PhD Manca Pirc  Biotechnology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  210 
10.  05229  PhD Maja Ravnikar  Biotechnology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  1,369 
11.  33045  Mojca Rot  Biotechnical sciences  Researcher  2016 - 2017  100 
12.  07442  MSc Gabrijel Seljak  Plant production  Researcher  2014 - 2015  464 
13.  19430  PhD Nataša Stritih Peljhan  Neurobiology  Researcher  2016 - 2017  102 
14.  22596  Stanislav Vajs  Plant production  Researcher  2014 - 2017  88 
15.  05231  PhD Meta Virant Doberlet  Biology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  279 
16.  24937  PhD Alenka Žunič Kosi  Biology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  116 
Organisations (5)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0105  National Institute of Biology  Ljubljana  5055784  13,256 
2.  0148  Institute of Agriculture  Maribor  5129877000  1,032 
3.  0401  Agricultural institute of Slovenia  Ljubljana  5055431  20,020 
4.  0482  University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences  Hoče  5089638004  9,894 
5.  1360  AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY INSTITUTE OF NOVA GORICA  Nova Gorica  5051754  973 
Abstract
Apple tree is the most popular fruit tree in Slovenia and the apple production was 74,263 tons in 2012. Among threats of this important economic sector are apple tree diseases, including the one caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (APf). APf is a quarantine organism in European Union, regulated by the Council Directive 2000/29/EC /Annex I.A.II list and included in the EPPO A2 list. It is a causal agent of apple proliferation (AP). Although in general the infected tree does not die back, the quality of produce is severely impaired. AP was officially confirmed in Slovenia in 1985 and has been present since then. Data from other European countries show high molecular variability of APf, which is associated with different virulence of various strains and different epidemiology. APf can be transmitted with reproductive and planting material, root bridges and psylllids vectors (Sternorrhyncha:Psyllidae) Cacopsylla picta and C. melanoneura. APf is the only phytoplasma that might be transmitted by psyllids and also leafhopper Fieberiella florii. Data on distribution and bionomy of those vectors and their association with APf in Slovenia are very scarce. The appearance of insects in orchards is generally routinely monitored by sticky traps and the only effective control of APf is control of vectors with insecticides. Besides spraying, several new alternative approaches have been proposed, e.g. a disturbance of mating by the vibrational signals.  In a mother tree orchard in Selo, which is operated by Kmetijsko gozdarski zavod Maribor, Sadjarski center Maribor, the first infection with APf was confirmed in 2012. Since then the infection has been spread and is estimated that today about 1.5 % of trees are infected. Because this is the only mother tree orchard for the production of certified planting material, this infection is a big thread which require immediate measures. In the proposed project the special knowledge of all that could participate to solving the problem will be connected and the experts will prepare the recommendations for measures against AP. Proposed measures would be also potentially useful in other similar orchards.   The specific goals of the proposed project will be (1) the inventarization and study of  diversity of APf and its vectors in Slovenia in order to reveal the way of spread of this phytopalsma and find the possible sources of infection; (2) the establishment of  monitoring of vectors, a determination of their infection rate with APf and study of their bionomy to clarify the epidemiology in the mother tree orchard Selo and in the experimental orchard of UKC FKBV University of Maribor in Hoče; (3) testing and validation of various ways of APf vector control and (4) preparation of measures against AP.   The results of the proposed project will have direct implication for the fruit production. They may be applied for the optimal and minimal application of insecticides for chemical and biotical control of vectors. Moreover, the application of the alternative system of vector control may minimize the use of insecticide use. New data about the effectiveness of classical or biotic insecticides will allow a preparation of qualitative instructions for vector control, which is particularly important in maintenance of mother tree orchards.   The results of the project will contribute to the overall basic knowledge on phytoplasma/plant host/vector interactions that is still rudimentary. Recognition of phytoplasmas as the causal agents of the diseases of many important crops worldwide, including fruit trees, has intensified their research and resulted in few sequenced phytoplasma genomes in recent years. These and data from this project will contribute to understanding of molecular basis of AP disease. In addition, the new data will contribute to understanding of binomy of key vectors of APf and together with molecular analysis of infected specimens to understanding of AP epidemiology.   The proposed projects will
Significance for science
Rezultati predlaganega projekta bodo prispevali k splošnemu znanju o fitoplazmah in njihovih prenašalcih, ki je še vedno rudimentarno tudi na globalni ravni. Spoznanje, da so fitoplazme povzročiteljice bolezni številnih kmetijsko pomembnih rastlin, vključno s sadnim drevjem, je po vsem svetu pospešilo njihove raziskave in prav v zadnjih letih vodilo do nekaj popolnih zaporedij njihovih genomov. To bo, skupaj z rezultati te študije, prispevalo k razumevanju molekulskih osnov metličavosti jablan.  Prav tako bodo rezultati predlaganega projekta prispevali k poznavanju bionomije glavnih prenašalcev APf in skupaj z molekularno analizo okuženih osebkov k poznavanju epidemiologije AP.
Significance for the country
Rezultati predlaganega projekta bodo imeli neposredne posledice pri praktični uporabi v sadjarstvu. Rezultate pridobljene v raziskavi bodo vzdrževalci matičnih nasadov in pridelovalci jabolk lahko uporabili za optimalno uporabo insekticidov za kemično in biotično zatiranje prenašalcev z  najmanjšo potrebno količino sredstev za zatiranje; uspešna postavitev alternativnega sistema za zatiranje pa  bi kemično zatiranje zelo zmanjšala. S pridobitvijo podatkov o učinkovitosti delovanja različnih vrst klasičnih in biotičnih insekticidov bomo omogočili pripravo kakovostnih strokovnih navodil za učinkovito zatiranje bolšic, kar je še posebej pomembno za vzdrževalce matičnih nasadov jablan.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2015, 2016, final report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2015, 2016, final report
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