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Projects / Programmes source: ARRS

Assessment and optimization of planning and realisation of young forest tending in Slovenia

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
4.01.01  Biotechnical sciences  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Forest - forestry 

Code Science Field
B430  Biomedical sciences  Sylviculture, forestry, forestry technology 

Code Science Field
4.01  Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences  Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 
Keywords
tending of young forests, silvicultural system, urgent silvicultural measures, subsidies for forests tending, ecosystem services, ice damage, biological restoration of stands damaged by natural disturbance
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (13)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publications
1.  29881  Tomaž Adamič    Technician  2014 - 2017  32 
2.  11958  PhD Robert Brus  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  722 
3.  15493  PhD Matjaž Čater  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  286 
4.  11253  PhD Jurij Diaci  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Principal Researcher  2014 - 2017  698 
5.  34320  PhD Gal Fidej  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  75 
6.  26070  PhD Kristjan Jarni  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  95 
7.  16259  PhD Simon Kolmanič  Computer science and informatics  Researcher  2014 - 2017  166 
8.  12796  PhD Janez Krč  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  308 
9.  27544  PhD Thomas Andrew Nagel  Biotechnical sciences  Researcher  2014 - 2017  213 
10.  24368  PhD Andrej Rozman  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  107 
11.  21043  PhD Dušan Roženbergar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  217 
12.  18726  PhD Damjan Strnad  Computer science and informatics  Researcher  2014 - 2017  201 
13.  10008  PhD Milan Šinko  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2014 - 2017  122 
Organisations (3)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publications
1.  0404  Slovenian Forestry Institute  Ljubljana  5051673000  11,778 
2.  0481  University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty  Ljubljana  1626914  64,118 
3.  0796  University of Maribor, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science  Maribor  5089638003  26,908 
Abstract
Decrease in realisation of planned silvicultural treatment (tending) and concurrent increase of regeneration fellings may lead to long term decrease of quality and stability of the private and state forest and at the same time its capability to provide the ecosystem services. In the period 1993-2011, the realisation of planned tending measures was around 58 %. The decrease of tending activities was especially pronounced in private forests, where only one third of planned tending was implemented. This decrease is on the one hand a result of socioeconomic changes and on the other hand a result of decline in the state subsidies for tending. Decrease in realisation of tending measures could also be attributed to the prevalence of continuous cover silvicultural systems used in Slovenia, where education of young forest is done mostly by the appropriate canopy cover. One of the demands, connected to the Slovenian state and European Union subsidies for tending is a need to separate between tending for increasing the profitability of the forest and the tending that strengthens and preserves long-term ecosystem services of the forest.   Standards for tending and silvicultural models (beginning, the frequency and the repetition of tending measures) are predominantly determined empirically, with insufficient distinction between traditional large scale regeneration treatment (direct tending), minimal tending of large scale regeneration and treatment in forests managed with continuous cover approach (indirect tending).   Standards for the implementation of minimum tending measures to strengthen the forest ecosystem services are unspecified. Economic evaluations of tending models which are important for selecting a certain silvicultural system are not sufficient. Examples from practical work suggest, there are much less investments needed in the tending using selection silvicultural system when compared to irregular shelterwood system, still, in Slovenia up to date, there was no coherent study that would confirm this.   In February 2014, almost 400.000 ha of Slovenia forests were damaged by ice storm. This is the most intensive storm that was ever documented in this country. Estimates suggest that up to 10 million m3 of trees were seriously damaged. Several thousands hectares of forests will be regenerated in a natural way, but almost 1,000 ha of forests will need artificial regeneration practices, as sowing and planting. Practical cases have shown, that the damage caused by irresponsible salvage activities, could be greater than the harm caused by the storm. During the salvage it is important that we give a special attention to: fine tuning of salvage logging and biological restoration, processes of secondary succession, setting priorities and taking into account the recommendations of good practice in silviculture. It is especially difficult to make decisions about using natural regeneration versus planting in highly damaged younger stands. To do more reliable decision-making, we need to develop silvicultural guidelines, based on domestic and foreign experience and in-depth quantitative analysis of case studies. In accordance with the issues described above and the Call for research projects under “Zagotovimo.si hrano za jutri” (“Lets provide food for tomorrow”) in 2014, we established the following goals of the proposed project: (1) to assess criteria for defining the necessary tending measures of young forest with regard to silvicultural systems, site conditions, and forest functions; (2) to define optimal strategies for silvicultural measures in damaged forest with regard to damage level; (3) to define the optimal intensity and dynamics of tending measures and (4) to assess the suitability of existing criteria and propose modifications of criteria for subsidising tending measures from public funds. In conjunction within the above mentioned goals we established several work-packages and sub-packages: WP1: Necessary tending measures in
Significance for science
Strokovni javnosti bodo predstavljene ocene današnjega stanja in razvojnih trendov glede nege gozdov pri nas in v tujini. Prav tako bodo predstavljeni izsledki glede ocene učinkov nege mladega gozda, predvsem iz vidika kakovosti, stabilnosti, dolgoročne prilagodljivosti in splošnokoristnih funkcij gozda. Na takšen način bodo prepoznana kritična mesta v današnjem sistemu načrtovanja in izvedbe del pri negi mladega gozda, ki bodo posredno omogočila pripravo ukrepov za izboljšanje stanja na tem področju. Preko analize kakovosti izvedene nege bodo omogočene usmeritve za gozdarsko politiko, ki vključuje tako spodbujanje določenih profilov izvajalcev in del kot tudi vsebino (oz. politiko) izobraževanja. Izdelani bodo izboljšani normativi za nego mladega gozdi, ki bodo omogočili bolj realno načrtovanje nege in obenem omogočili ekonomsko primerjavo vlaganj za nego gozda pri različnih zvrsteh gojenja gozdov. Na podlagi navedenega bo mogoče oblikovati ukrepe za izboljšanje izvajanja in sofinanciranja nege mladega gozda v Sloveniji. Na ta način bodo oblikovane tudi smernice za racionalizacijo nege v specifičnih proizvodnih in rastiščnih razmerah gospodarjenja z gozdovi v Sloveniji.
Significance for the country
Za doseganje boljših ekonomskih učinkov pri gospodarjenju z gozdom je nega mladega gozda ključnega pomena, saj lahko dolgoročno nekajkrat poveča vrednost gozda. Zaradi povečevanja stroškov dela in zmanjševanja državnih spodbud za izvajanje negovalnih del bo obseg nege mladega gozda v prihodnje predvidoma manjši od dosedanjega. Rezultati projekta bodo imeli neposredne učinke na bolj učinkovito porabo denarja, ki ga država namenja za nego gozda, saj bomo v projektu analizirali razmere in pretekla gibanja v Sloveniji, izpeljali primerjavo s tujino in predlagali kriterije za določanje prioritetnih negovalnih del. Razvoj bolj podrobnih smernic za nego gozda, glede na njihove ekonomske učinke bo dolgoročno izboljšal vrednost gozdov in s tem okrepil gozdarsko panogo. Projekt bo prispeval tudi h krepitvi zavesti o pomenu dolgoročnih vlaganj v gozdove ter posredno omogočil ohranjanje oz. odpiranje novih delovnih mest.   Rezultati projekta bodo omogočili razvoj strategij za ukrepanje v gozdovih prizadetih po ujmah, predvsem na področju obnove gozda na močno poškodovanih območjih in na področju premenilnih redčenj v manj poškodovanih in mlajših sestojih. Znotraj strategij ukrepanja bomo definirali sanitarno sečnjo, spravilo in umetno obnovo in na tak način zmanjšali ekonomske izgube, hkrati pa bo gozd hitreje dosegel svojo končno vrednost.   V delu projekta bomo analizirali dovzetnost dreves za poškodbe po žledu, kar bo ključnega pomena za povečevanje odpornosti gozda v Sloveniji. Odpornost gozda zmanjšuje tveganje pri gospodarjenju z gozdom, s čimer se zmanjšuje tudi ekonomsko tveganje in se povečuje stabilnost investicije v mladi gozd, ki jo preko subvencij izvaja država. Glede na napovedi v prihodnosti pričakujemo več ujm velikih razsežnosti. Stabilnost gozdov bo zato v prihodnje pomemben dejavnik, ki bo pozitivno vplival na stanje v gozdarski panogi.     Del projekta bo odgovoril na vprašanje, katero poškodovano in odmrlo drevje je smotrno odstraniti in katero ne. Nekdanje prakse sanacij gozdov po ujmah so brez izjeme odstranjevale vse drevje, ki je bilo poškodovano, kar pa ni vedno najbolj gospodarno. Rezultati tega dela projekta bodo pokazali, katere pozitivne vloge ima odmrlo in poškodovano drevje in kakšen delež tega drevja v gozdu lahko puščamo in na tak način zmanjšamo stroške sanacije, povečamo možnosti za gojitveno obravnavo in obnovo in omogočimo povečanje biotske pestrosti gozdov in s tem izboljšavo splošno koristnih funkcij gozdov.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2015, 2016, final report
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2015, 2016, final report
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